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The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype
Lancelets (‘amphioxus’) are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage, with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian period. Here we describe the structure and gene content of the highlyExpand
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The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology.
Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, weExpand
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Axial patterning in cephalochordates and the evolution of the organizer
The organizer of the vertebrate gastrula is an important signalling centre that induces and patterns dorsal axial structures. Although a topic of long-standing interest, the evolutionary origin ofExpand
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Sequence and embryonic expression of the amphioxus engrailed gene (AmphiEn): the metameric pattern of transcription resembles that of its segment-polarity homolog in Drosophila.
Vertebrate segmentation has been proposed as an evolutionary inheritance either from some metameric protostome or from a more closely related deuterostome. To address this question, we studied theExpand
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AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest
SUMMARY Amphioxus probably has only a single gene (AmphiPax3/7 ) in the Pax3/7 subfamily. Like its vertebrate homologs (Pax3 and Pax7 ), amphioxus AmphiPax3/7 is probably involved in specifying theExpand
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Opposing Nodal/Vg1 and BMP signals mediate axial patterning in embryos of the basal chordate amphioxus.
The basal chordate amphioxus resembles vertebrates in having a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, a notochord and somites. However, it lacks extensive gene duplications, and its embryos are small andExpand
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The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest.
Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. InExpand
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Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria.
The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genesExpand
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An amphioxus Pax gene, AmphiPax-1, expressed in embryonic endoderm, but not in mesoderm: implications for the evolution of class I paired box genes.
Class I paired box genes are widely distributed through the animal phyla but only fruitfly Pox meso and vertebrate Pax-1 and Pax-9 have been adequately characterized. These vertebrate genes haveExpand
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Conservation of Brachyury (T) genes in amphioxus and vertebrates: developmental and evolutionary implications.
Homologues of the murine Brachyury (T) gene have been cloned from several vertebrates, and are implicated in mesoderm formation and in differentiation of the notochord. In contrast, the roles of theExpand
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