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Pro-Inflammatory CD11c+CD206+ Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Associated With Insulin Resistance in Human Obesity
TLDR
These findings identify proinflammatory CD11c+ ATMs as markers of insulin resistance in human obesity and indicates they metabolize lipid and may initiate adaptive immune responses.
Prediction of MHC class II-binding peptides using an evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural network
TLDR
A bioinformatic method was developed for the prediction of peptide binding to MHC class II molecules and its application to the identification of potential immunotherapeutic peptides illustrates the synergy between experimentation and computer modeling.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) should be less latent
TLDR
The nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, genetics, pathology and therapy of LADA are reviewed, to arrive at recommendations that might advance knowledge and management of this form of diabetes.
Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes
TLDR
Medicinal foods or metabolites might represent an effective and natural approach for countering the numerous immunological defects that contribute to T cell–dependent autoimmune diseases.
Human Dendritic Cell Subsets from Spleen and Blood Are Similar in Phenotype and Function but Modified by Donor Health Status
TLDR
It is indicated that human blood DC closely resemble human spleen DC, and parallels between human and mouse DC subsets in phenotype and function are confirmed, but differences in transcription factor and TLR expression as well as functional properties are identified.
Diurnal rhythms of pro-inflammatory cytokines: regulation by plasma cortisol and therapeutic implications.
TLDR
In contrast to standard schedules, a small, late evening, dose of glucocorticoid to suppress the diurnal increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production could alleviate early morning inflammatory symptoms and minimize side-effects.
SPAK, a STE20/SPS1-related kinase that activates the p38 pathway
TLDR
The similarity of SPAK to other SPS1 family members, its ability to activate the p38 pathway, in addition to its putative caspase cleavage site, provide evidence that SPAk may act as a novel mediator of stress-activated signals.
Linkage disequilibrium of a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus with a regulatory IL12B allele
TLDR
A new susceptibility locus, IDDM18, is reported, located near the interleukin-12 (IL-12)p40 gene, IL12B, which may influence T-cell responses crucial for either mediating or protecting against this and other autoimmune diseases.
Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP.
TLDR
The results suggest that pathogenic proinsulin-specific immunity in NOD mice subsequently spreads to other antigens such as IGRP, and direct evidence that the response against I GRP is downstream of the response to Proinsulin is provided.
T cell regulation mediated by interaction of soluble CD52 with the inhibitory receptor Siglec-10
TLDR
It is found that human and mouse antigen-activated T cells with high expression of the lymphocyte surface marker CD52 suppressed other T cells, identifying a ligand-receptor mechanism of T cell regulation that may protect humans and mice from autoimmune disease.
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