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A Fully Digital 8$\,\times\,$16 SiPM Array for PET Applications With Per-Pixel TDCs and Real-Time Energy Output
Characterization of gamma detection performance with an 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 LYSO scintillator at 20°C is reported, showing a 511-keV gamma energy resolution of 10.9% and a coincidence timing resolution of 399 ps. Expand
Scaleable Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structures in Nanometer CMOS Technology
Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode offer exceptional time resolution and optical sensitivity. Implementation in modern nanometer-scale complementaryExpand
A 32×32 50ps resolution 10 bit time to digital converter array in 130nm CMOS for time correlated imaging
The resulting time correlated pixel array is a viable candidate for single photon counting (TCSPC) applications such as fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), nuclear or 3D imaging and permits scaling to larger array formats. Expand
A Comprehensive Tool for Modeling CMOS Image-Sensor-Noise Performance
Accurate modeling of image noise is important in understanding the relative contributions of multiple-noise mechanisms in the sensing, readout, and reconstruction phases of image formation. There isExpand
Low Dark Count Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structure Compatible With Standard Nanometer Scale CMOS Technology
A single-photon avalanche diode structure implemented in a 130-nm imaging process is reported. The device employs a p-well anode, rather than the commonly adopted p+, and a novel guard ringExpand
A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process
We report on a new single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process. A novel circular structure combining shallow trench isolation (STI) and a passivation implantExpand
A High-Performance Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in 130-nm CMOS Imaging Technology
A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is reported in a 130-nm CMOS imaging process which achieves a peak photon detection efficiency (PDE) of ≈72% at 560 nm with >; 40% PDE from 410 to 760 nm. ThisExpand
A SPAD-Based QVGA Image Sensor for Single-Photon Counting and Quanta Imaging
A CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based quarter video graphics array image sensor with 8-μm pixel pitch and 26.8% fill factor (FF) is presented. The combination of analog pixel electronicsExpand
320×240 oversampled digital single photon counting image sensor
A 320×240 single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) based single photon counting image sensor is implemented in 0.13μm imaging CMOS with state of the art 8μm pixel pitch at 26.8% fill factor to construct a 256 photon/8bit output image at 20FPS. Expand
A 3×3, 5µm pitch, 3-transistor single photon avalanche diode array with integrated 11V bias generation in 90nm CMOS technology
A 3×3 prototype image sensor array consisting of 2µm diameter CMOS avalanche photodiodes with 3-transistor NMOS pixel circuitry is integrated in a 90nm CMOS image sensor technology. The 5µm pixelExpand