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The Distribution and Mechanism of Action of Ghrelin in the CNS Demonstrates a Novel Hypothalamic Circuit Regulating Energy Homeostasis
TLDR
Using electrophysiological recordings, ghrelin stimulated the activity of arcuate NPY neurons and mimicked the effect of NPY in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), thus representing a novel regulatory circuit controlling energy homeostasis.
Neuroprotection by estradiol
TLDR
The view of the role of estrogen in neural function must be broadened to include not only its function in neuroendocrine regulation and reproductive behaviors, but also to include a direct protective role in response to degenerative disease or injury.
The neuroprotective actions of oestradiol and oestrogen receptors
TLDR
Recent discoveries have shown that oestradiol is not only a reproductive hormone but also a brain-derived neuroprotective factor in males and females and that ERs coordinate multiple signalling mechanisms that protect the brain from neurodegenerative diseases, affective disorders and cognitive decline.
Aromatase in the Brain: Not Just for Reproduction Anymore
TLDR
Brain aromatase regulates synaptic activity, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and the response of neural tissue to injury, and may contribute to control nonreproductive behaviours, mood and cognition.
Brain aromatase is neuroprotective.
TLDR
A role for local cerebral aromatase in neuroprotection is indicated by the fact that intracerebral administration of fadrozole enhanced kainic acid induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of intact male rats and the neuroprotective effect of testosterone against kainoic acid in castrated male rats was blocked by fad rozole.
Estradiol inhibits GSK3 and regulates interaction of estrogen receptors, GSK3, and beta-catenin in the hippocampus
TLDR
The present data show that estradiol induces a transient activation of GSK3 in the adult female rat hippocampus, followed by a more sustained inhibition, as inferred from phosphorylation levels of Tau, and suggest that part of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen may be due to the control of Gsk3.
Aromatase expression by astrocytes after brain injury: implications for local estrogen formation in brain repair
TLDR
Findings indicate that although astrocytes do not normally express aromatase, the enzyme expression is induced in these glial cells by different forms of brain injury and suggest a role for local astroglial estrogen formation in brain repair.
Glial expression of estrogen and androgen receptors after rat brain injury
TLDR
Results suggest that reactive astrocytes and reactive microglia are a direct target for estrogens and androgens, respectively.
Estrogen and microglia: A regulatory system that affects the brain.
TLDR
This work presents evidence for the presence of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) in rat microglial cells and believes that many of the immune and nonimmune regulatory functions of microglia in the brain are influenced directly by estrogen via expression and secretion of cytokines, and growth factors by themicroglia.
Contribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the effects of estradiol in the brain
TLDR
Results suggest therapeutic potential for the brain of ER specific agonists in ovariectomized rats and suggest a role for ERalpha in striatal dopamine neuroprotection.
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