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Oral Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Competence: A Theoretical, Empirical, and Historical Analysis
The purpose of this article is to consider oral reading fluency as an indicator of overall reading competence. We begin by examining theoretical arguments for supposing that oral reading fluency mayExpand
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The Past, Present, and Future of Curriculum-Based Measurement Research
Thirty years ago, the dominant approach to progress monitoring was mastery measurement. With mastery measurement, teachers specify a hierarchy of instructional objectives constituting the annualExpand
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Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies to Students With Learning Disabilities: A Review of Research
We review the body of research on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities. First, we describe the factors that lead to the comprehension difficulties of these students. Next weExpand
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The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty.
This study examined the efficacy of preventive 1st-grade tutoring in mathematics, estimated the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability, and explored pretreatment cognitive characteristicsExpand
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Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis
This meta-analysis investigated the effects of formative evaluation procedures on student achievement. The data source was 21 controlled studies, which generated 96 relevant effect sizes, with anExpand
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Formative Evaluation of Academic Progress: How Much Growth Can We Expect?.
The purpose of this study was to examine students' weekly rates of academic growth, or slopes of achievement, when Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is conducted repeatedly over 1 year. UsingExpand
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The cognitive correlates of third-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive correlates of 3rd-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems. Third graders (N = 312) were measured onExpand
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Selecting At-Risk Readers in First Grade for Early Intervention: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Decision Rules and Procedures
Response to intervention (RTI) models for identifying learning disabilities rely on the accurate identification of children who, without Tier 2 tutoring, would develop reading disability (RD). ThisExpand
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Using Curriculum-based Measurement to Establish Growth Standards for Students with Learning Disabilities
Abstract The purpose of this article is to illustrate how one well-developed, technically strong measurement system, curriculum-based measurement (CBM), can be used to establish academic growthExpand
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Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency.
This study examined the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and readingExpand
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