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When words are painful: Unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect
Experimental evidence indicates that negative verbal suggestions induce anticipatory anxiety about the impending pain increase, and this verbally-induced anxiety triggers the activation of cholecystokinin which, in turn, facilitates pain transmission, and underscores the important role of cognition in the therapeutic outcome. Expand
Placebos and painkillers: is mind as real as matter?
The mental events induced by placebo administration can activate mechanisms that are similar to those activated by drugs, which indicates a similarity between psychosocial and pharmacodynamic effects. Expand
Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning
It is found that observing the beneficial effects in the demonstrator induced substantial placebo analgesic responses, which were positively correlated with empathy scores and suggest that different forms of learning take part in the placebo phenomenon. Expand
Placebo-responsive Parkinson patients show decreased activity in single neurons of subthalamic nucleus
It is shown that placebo treatment caused reduced activity in single neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of placebo-responsive Parkinsonian patients, and changes in activity were tightly correlated with clinical improvement. Expand
Overt versus covert treatment for pain, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease
The main finding is that when the patient is completely unaware that a treatment is being given, the treatment is less effective than when it is given overtly in accordance with routine medical practice. Expand
The Placebo Effect: Advances from Different Methodological Approaches
An overview of the processes involved in the formation of placebo responses is provided by combining research findings from behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging methods. Expand
The role of learning in nocebo and placebo effects
It is shown that nocebo suggestions, in which expectation of pain increase is induced, are capable of producing both hyperalgesic and allodynic responses, and it is suggested that learning is not important in nocebos compared to placebo analgesia. Expand
The Nocebo Effect and Its Relevance for Clinical Practice
Evidence indicates that information disclosure about potential side effects can itself contribute to producing adverse effects, and evidence further indicates that the informed consent process in clinical trials may induce nocebo effects. Expand
How the number of learning trials affects placebo and nocebo responses
The findings suggest that the strength of learning may be clinically important for producing long‐lasting placebo effects, and not just the number of conditioning trials, as previously suggested. Expand
How placebo responses are formed: a learning perspective
  • L. Colloca, F. Miller
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
  • 27 June 2011
It is argued that different kinds of learning along with individuals' genetic make-up evolved as the proximate cause for triggering behavioural and neural mechanisms that enable the formation of individual expectations and placebo responses. Expand