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Induction of plasticity in the human motor cortex by paired associative stimulation.
Current models of motor cortical plasticity, developed in studies on experimental animals, emphasize the importance of the conjoint activity of somatosensory afferents and intrinsic motor corticalExpand
Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation
We studied the effects of low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on motor cortex excitability in humans. TMS at 0.1 Hz for 1 hour did not change cortical excitability. Stimulation atExpand
Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008
Effects of weak electrical currents on brain and neuronal function were first described decades ago. Recently, DC polarization of the brain was reintroduced as a noninvasive technique to alterExpand
A temporally asymmetric Hebbian rule governing plasticity in the human motor cortex.
Synaptic plasticity is conspicuously dependent on the temporal order of the pre- and postsynaptic activity. Human motor cortical excitability can be increased by a paired associative stimulationExpand
Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice.
The process of acquiring motor skills through the sustained performance of complex movements is associated with neural plasticity. However, it is unknown whether even simple movements, repeated overExpand
Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation
Motor skills can take weeks to months to acquire and can diminish over time in the absence of continued practice. Thus, strategies that enhance skill acquisition or retention are of great scientificExpand
Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.
1. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to study the role of plastic changes of the human motor system in the acquisition of new fine motor skills. We mapped the cortical motor areasExpand
Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated
These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on “Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routineExpand
Mechanisms of enhancement of human motor cortex excitability induced by interventional paired associative stimulation
Associative stimulation has been shown to enhance excitability in the human motor cortex ( Stefan et al. 2000 ); however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. An interventional pairedExpand
Direct Current Stimulation Promotes BDNF-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity: Potential Implications for Motor Learning
Despite its increasing use in experimental and clinical settings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) remain unknown. Anodal tDCS appliedExpand