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Defining the Neural Mechanisms of Probabilistic Reversal Learning Using Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in 13 young healthy human volunteers during performance of a probabilistic reversal-learning task, finding that signal change in this ventral frontostriatal circuit is associated with reversal learning and is uncontaminated by negative feedback.
Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex.
Investigation of cognitive deficits following damage to different sectors of the human prefrontal cortex found that ventral and dorsal aspects of prefrontal cortex must interact in the maintenance of rational and 'non-risky' decision making.
Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: Review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies
Reflection Impulsivity in Current and Former Substance Users
Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers
- Danielle Turner, T. Robbins, L. Clark, A. Aron, J. Dowson, B. Sahakian
- Psychology, BiologyPsychopharmacology
Data indicate that modafinil selectively improves neuropsychological task performance, suggesting that modAFinil may be of benefit in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Neurochemical Modulation of Response Inhibition and Probabilistic Learning in Humans
- S. Chamberlain, U. Müller, A. Blackwell, L. Clark, T. Robbins, B. Sahakian
- Biology, PsychologyScience
- 10 February 2006
A double dissociation for the involvement of noradrenaline and serotonin in human cognition is shown using stop-signal and probabilistic learning tasks.
Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder.
- L. Clark, S. Iversen, G. Goodwin
- Psychology, MedicineThe British journal of psychiatry : the journal…
- 1 April 2002
Sustained attention deficit may represent a neuropsychological vulnerability marker for bipolar disorder, providing a focus for further understanding of the phenotype and analysis of the neuronal networks involved.
Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making
- L. Clark, A. Bechara, H. Damasio, M. Aitken, B. Sahakian, T. Robbins
- Psychology, BiologyBrain : a journal of neurology
- 3 April 2008
VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk, and patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds on the Cambridge Gamble Task, confirming the necessary role of thevmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk.
Gambling Near-Misses Enhance Motivation to Gamble and Recruit Win-Related Brain Circuitry
Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment.
Cognitive, neuroanatomical, and pharmacological tiers of research are drawn together to identify treatment targets and directions for future investigation to identify people at risk, minimize relapse, and maximize long-term beneficial outcomes for those suffering from depression.