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Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been createdExpand
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Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development
A primary goal of scale development is to create a valid measure of an underlying construct. We discuss theoretical principles, practical issues, and pragmatic decisions to help developers maximizeExpand
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The PANAS-X manual for the positive and negative affect schedule
A network is disclosed for automatically checking the skew and character spacing of digital tape drive systems to indicate out-of-tolerance conditions of those parameters. Expand
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Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications.
We review psychometric and other evidence relevant to mixed anxiety-depression. Properties of anxiety and depression measures, including the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and clinicalExpand
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Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states.
A number of apparently diverse personality scales—variously called trait anxiety, neuroticism, ego strength, general maladjustment, repression-sensitization, and social desirability—are reviewed andExpand
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Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders.
Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s. The similarities and differences between these two conditions, as well as many of the importantExpand
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Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders.
Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad moodExpand
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Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples.
L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model of depression and anxiety that divides symptoms into 3 groups: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestationsExpand
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Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales.
L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model that groups symptoms of depression and anxiety into 3 subtypes: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestationsExpand
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Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization.
  • L. Clark
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
  • 21 December 2007
This chapter reviews recent (2000-2005) personality disorder (PD) research, focusing on three major domains: assessment, comorbidity, and stability. (a) Substantial evidence has accrued favoringExpand
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