• Publications
  • Influence
Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.
Two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) are developed and are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period.
Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development
A primary goal of scale development is to create a valid measure of an underlying construct. We discuss theoretical principles, practical issues, and pragmatic decisions to help developers maximize
The PANAS-X manual for the positive and negative affect schedule
A network is disclosed for automatically checking the skew and character spacing of digital tape drive systems to indicate out-of-tolerance conditions of those parameters. The network enables a tape
Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications.
Results suggest that anxiety and depression can be reliably and validly assessed; moreover, although these disorders share a substantial component of general affective distress, they can be differentiated on the basis of factors specific to each syndrome.
Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states.
A number of apparently diverse personality scales—variously called trait anxiety, neuroticism, ego strength, general maladjustment, repression-sensitization, and social desirability—are reviewed and
Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales.
L.A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model that groups symptoms of depression and anxiety into 3 subtypes: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestations
Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders.
Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s, with data converging on an integrative hierarchical model of mood and anxiety disorders in which each individual syndrome contains both a common and a unique component.
Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples.
This model was tested by conducting separate factor analyses of the 90 items in the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, and the same 3 factors emerged in each data set, suggesting that the symptom structure in this domain is highly convergent across diverse samples.
Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders.
Findings in normal samples suggest that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Aflect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) may improve their differentiation, and the results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.
Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization.
  • L. Clark
  • Psychology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 21 December 2007
This chapter reviews recent personality disorder research, focusing on three major domains: assessment, comorbidity, and stability, and finds a new model for assessing PD-and perhaps all psychopathology-emerges from integrating these interrelated reconceptualizations.