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Generalization in Pollination Systems, and Why it Matters
To illustrate the range of specialization and generalization in pollinators' use of plants and vice versa, studies of two floras in the United States, and of members of several plant families and solitary bee genera are drawn.
The evolution of color vision in insects.
It is proposed that chance evolutionary processes, history, and constraints should be considered and quantifying variance between individuals and populations and using fitness measurements to test the adaptive value of traits identified in insect color vision systems are suggested.
The colour hexagon: a chromaticity diagram based on photoreceptor excitations as a generalized representation of colour opponency
- L. Chittka
- BiologyJournal of Comparative Physiology A
- 1 June 1992
A chromaticity diagram which plots the 3 photoreceptor excitations of trichromatic colour vision systems at an angle of 120° is presented and it is demonstrated by geometrical means that excitation values for any type of spectrally opponent mechanism can be read from this diagram if the weighting factors of this mechanism add up to zero.
Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution
The way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color affect constancy is considered, and the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution are discussed.
Successful invasion of a floral market
An exotic Asian plant has moved in on Europe's river-banks by bribing pollinators, according to a new study.
Visual constraints in foraging bumblebees: Flower size and color affect search time and flight behavior
- J. Spaethe, J. Tautz, L. Chittka
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 20 March 2001
Evaluating the flight behavior of bumblebees searching for artificial flowers shows that foraging speed may not be limited only by factors such as prey density, flight energetics, and scramble competition, and that understanding the behavioral ecology of foraging can substantially gain from knowledge about mechanisms of visual information processing.
Biological significance of distinguishing between similar colours in spectrally variable illumination: bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) as a case study
It is found that it would be beneficial for plant species to have highly distinctive colour signals to overcome limitations on the bees performance in reliably judging differences between similar colours.
Fine colour discrimination requires differential conditioning in bumblebees
When provided with differential conditioning where both target and distractors were present, the bees learnt to discriminate stimuli separated by a perceptually small colour distance, showing that for bees to learn fine colour discrimination tasks it is important to use differential conditioning.
Ultraviolet as a component of flower reflections, and the colour perception of hymenoptera
The evolutionary adaptation of flower colours and the insect pollinators' colour vision
Straight-forward model calculations determine the optimal set of 3 spectral photoreceptor types for discrimination of floral colour signals on the basis of perceptual difference values and show good agreement with the sets of photoreceptors characterized electrophysiologically in 40 species of Hymenoptera.