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An index of substitution saturation and its application.
We introduce a new index to measure substitution saturation in a set of aligned nucleotide sequences. The index is based on the notion of entropy in information theory. We derive the critical valuesExpand
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Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms
Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells. Stargazin, the mutated protein,Expand
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Functional studies and distribution define a family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins
Functional expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in cerebellar granule cells requires stargazin, a member of a large family of four-pass transmembraneExpand
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Rapid Single-Step Induction of Functional Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Available methods for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) into neurons are often cumbersome, slow, and variable. Alternatively, human fibroblastsExpand
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VEGF-A stimulates lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis in inflammatory neovascularization via macrophage recruitment.
Lymphangiogenesis, an important initial step in tumor metastasis and transplant sensitization, is mediated by the action of VEGF-C and -D on VEGFR3. In contrast, VEGF-A binds VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 and isExpand
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Harnessing Twitter "Big Data" for Automatic Emotion Identification
We have automatically created a large emotion-labeled dataset (of about 2.5 million tweets) by harnessing emotion-related hash tags available in the tweets. Expand
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An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites
Genome-wide association scans with high-throughput metabolic profiling provide unprecedented insights into how genetic variation influences metabolism and complex disease. Here we report the mostExpand
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Activation of STAT6 by STING Is Critical for Antiviral Innate Immunity
STAT6 plays a prominent role in adaptive immunity by transducing signals from extracellular cytokines. We now show that STAT6 is required for innate immune signaling in response to virus infection.Expand
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Signal-Mediated Dynamic Retention of Glycosyltransferases in the Golgi
Golgi-resident glycosyltransferases are a family of enzymes that sequentially modify glycoproteins in a subcompartment-specific manner. These type II integral membrane proteins are characterized by aExpand
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The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease
Summary Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis inExpand
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