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Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation
Fuel Economy for Growing Cells Sophisticated 21st-century analyses of the signaling pathways that control cell growth have led researchers back to the seminal work of Otto Warburg, who discovered inExpand
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The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.
Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositideExpand
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AKT/PKB Signaling: Navigating Downstream
The serine/threonine kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a central node in cell signaling downstream of growth factors, cytokines, and other cellular stimuli. Aberrant loss or gainExpand
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Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate
Mutations in the enzyme cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are a common feature of a major subset of primary human brain cancers. These mutations occur at a single amino acid residue of theExpand
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Scansite 2.0: proteome-wide prediction of cell signaling interactions using short sequence motifs
Scansite identifies short protein sequence motifs that are recognized by modular signaling domains, phosphorylated by protein Ser/Thr- or Tyr-kinases or mediate specific interactions with protein orExpand
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The evolution of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as regulators of growth and metabolism
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) evolved from a single enzyme that regulates vesicle trafficking in unicellular eukaryotes into a family of enzymes that regulate cellular metabolism and growthExpand
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MET Amplification Leads to Gefitinib Resistance in Lung Cancer by Activating ERBB3 Signaling
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib are effective treatments for lung cancers with EGFR activating mutations, but these tumors invariably developExpand
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The Kinase LKB1 Mediates Glucose Homeostasis in Liver and Therapeutic Effects of Metformin
The Peutz-Jegher syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase]. TheExpand
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The tumor suppressor LKB1 kinase directly activates AMP-activated kinase and regulates apoptosis in response to energy stress.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotic cells. AMPK is activated by stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio.Expand
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The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth
Many tumour cells have elevated rates of glucose uptake but reduced rates of oxidative phosphorylation. This persistence of high lactate production by tumours in the presence of oxygen, known asExpand
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