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Success of the high‐dose/refuge resistance management strategy after 15 years of Bt crop use in North America
TLDR
Observations support the claim that implementation of the ‘high‐dose/refuge’ IRM strategy has been successful in substantially delaying field resistance to Bt crops.
Baseline Susceptibility and Changes in Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Under Selection Pressure in European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
TLDR
It is shown that European corn borer populations can respond rapidly to intense selection pressure with a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Neonates from field-collected insects could be placed on diets incorporating this concentration of Dipel to monitor for changes and regional differences in susceptibility among field populations of European corn borers.
Seeds of Change: Corn Seed Mixtures for Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management
TLDR
It is concluded that Seed mixtures will make pest monitoring more difficult and that seed mixtures may make IRM riskier because of larval behavior and greater adoption of insecticidal corn.
Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bt maize in French and US corn belt populations of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis
TLDR
It is suggested that resistance is probably rare enough in France and the northern US corn belt for the high-dose plus refuge strategy to delay resistance to Bt maize.
Susceptibility and Detoxifying Enzyme Activity in Two Spider Mite Species (Acari: Tetranychidae) After Selection with Three Insecticides
TLDR
In these mites, the general esterases may play a role in conferring resistance to pyrethroids, and the reduced susceptibility to dimethoate remained stable for three months in the absence of selection pressure in both mites.
Comparison of Midgut Proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible and -Resistant European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)
TLDR
The results suggest that other resistance mechanisms are responsible for the B. thuringiensis resistance in the KS-NE, IA-1,IA-2, and IA-3 strains of European corn borer.
Survival of Kansas Dipel-Resistant European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt and Non-Bt Corn Hybrids
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the current Kansas selection of Dipel-resistant European corn borer strain cannot establish reproducing populations in the tested Bt corn lines and hybrids.
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