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Success of the high‐dose/refuge resistance management strategy after 15 years of Bt crop use in North America
Observations support the claim that implementation of the ‘high‐dose/refuge’ IRM strategy has been successful in substantially delaying field resistance to Bt crops.
Baseline Susceptibility and Changes in Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Under Selection Pressure in European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
It is shown that European corn borer populations can respond rapidly to intense selection pressure with a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Neonates from field-collected insects could be placed on diets incorporating this concentration of Dipel to monitor for changes and regional differences in susceptibility among field populations of European corn borers.
Seeds of Change: Corn Seed Mixtures for Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management
It is concluded that Seed mixtures will make pest monitoring more difficult and that seed mixtures may make IRM riskier because of larval behavior and greater adoption of insecticidal corn.
Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bt maize in French and US corn belt populations of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis
It is suggested that resistance is probably rare enough in France and the northern US corn belt for the high-dose plus refuge strategy to delay resistance to Bt maize.
Comparative analysis of proteinase activities of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).
Susceptibility and Detoxifying Enzyme Activity in Two Spider Mite Species (Acari: Tetranychidae) After Selection with Three Insecticides
In these mites, the general esterases may play a role in conferring resistance to pyrethroids, and the reduced susceptibility to dimethoate remained stable for three months in the absence of selection pressure in both mites.
A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic matrix and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae.
Characterization of cDNAs encoding three trypsin-like proteinases and mRNA quantitative analysis in Bt-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis.
Comparison of Midgut Proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible and -Resistant European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)
The results suggest that other resistance mechanisms are responsible for the B. thuringiensis resistance in the KS-NE, IA-1,IA-2, and IA-3 strains of European corn borer.
Survival of Kansas Dipel-Resistant European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt and Non-Bt Corn Hybrids
- F. Huang, L. Buschman, R. Higgins, Hua-rong Li
- Biology, MedicineJournal of economic entomology
- 1 June 2002
It is demonstrated that the current Kansas selection of Dipel-resistant European corn borer strain cannot establish reproducing populations in the tested Bt corn lines and hybrids.