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Defining hormesis
Much confusion surrounds the concept of hormesis and what its biological meaning represents. This paper provides a definition of hormesis that addresses its historical foundations, quantitativeExpand
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Hormesis: the dose-response revolution.
Hormesis, a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, has been frequently observed in properly designed studies and is broadlyExpand
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Toxicology rethinks its central belief
Hormesis demands a reappraisal of the way risks are assessed.
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Hormesis: U-shaped dose responses and their centrality in toxicology.
The fundamental nature of the dose response is neither linear or threshold, but rather U-shaped. When studies are properly designed to evaluate biological activity below the traditional toxicologicalExpand
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Hormesis: A Generalizable and Unifying Hypothesis
The present article represents a comprehensive effort to assess the hypothesis that hormesis is a highly generalizable biological phenomenon independent of environmental stressor, biologicalExpand
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The frequency of U-shaped dose responses in the toxicological literature.
Hormesis has been defined as a dose-response relationship in which there is a stimulatory response at low doses, but an inhibitory response at high doses, resulting in a U- or inverted U-shaped doseExpand
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The hormetic dose-response model is more common than the threshold model in toxicology.
The threshold dose-response model is widely viewed as the most dominant model in toxicology. The present study was designed to test the validity of the threshold model by assessing the responses ofExpand
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U-shaped dose-responses in biology, toxicology, and public health.
The occurrence of U-shaped dose-response relationships (often termed hormesis) has been documented in numerous biological, toxicological, and pharmacological investigations. Many of the endpointsExpand
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Inorganics and Hormesis
The article is a comprehensive review of the occurrence of hormetic dose-response relationships induced by inorganic agents, including toxic agents, of significant environmental and public healthExpand
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Hormesis: a highly generalizable and reproducible phenomenon with important implications for risk assessment.
From a comprehensive search of the literature, the hormesis phenomenon was found to occur over a wide range of chemicals, taxonomic groups, and endpoints. By use of computer searches and extensiveExpand
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