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Much confusion surrounds the concept of hormesis and what its biological meaning represents. This paper provides a definition of hormesis that addresses its historical foundations, quantitative… Expand
Hormesis: the dose-response revolution.
Hormesis, a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, has been frequently observed in properly designed studies and is broadly… Expand
Toxicology rethinks its central belief
Hormesis demands a reappraisal of the way risks are assessed.
Hormesis: U-shaped dose responses and their centrality in toxicology.
The fundamental nature of the dose response is neither linear or threshold, but rather U-shaped. When studies are properly designed to evaluate biological activity below the traditional toxicological… Expand
Hormesis: A Generalizable and Unifying Hypothesis
The present article represents a comprehensive effort to assess the hypothesis that hormesis is a highly generalizable biological phenomenon independent of environmental stressor, biological… Expand
The frequency of U-shaped dose responses in the toxicological literature.
- E. Calabrese, L. Baldwin
- Psychology, Medicine
- Toxicological sciences : an official journal of…
- 1 August 2001
Hormesis has been defined as a dose-response relationship in which there is a stimulatory response at low doses, but an inhibitory response at high doses, resulting in a U- or inverted U-shaped dose… Expand
The hormetic dose-response model is more common than the threshold model in toxicology.
The threshold dose-response model is widely viewed as the most dominant model in toxicology. The present study was designed to test the validity of the threshold model by assessing the responses of… Expand
U-shaped dose-responses in biology, toxicology, and public health.
The occurrence of U-shaped dose-response relationships (often termed hormesis) has been documented in numerous biological, toxicological, and pharmacological investigations. Many of the endpoints… Expand
Inorganics and Hormesis
The article is a comprehensive review of the occurrence of hormetic dose-response relationships induced by inorganic agents, including toxic agents, of significant environmental and public health… Expand
Hormesis: a highly generalizable and reproducible phenomenon with important implications for risk assessment.
From a comprehensive search of the literature, the hormesis phenomenon was found to occur over a wide range of chemicals, taxonomic groups, and endpoints. By use of computer searches and extensive… Expand