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Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.
The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence. Expand
Conversion of 5-Methylcytosine to 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Mammalian DNA by MLL Partner TET1
It is shown here that TET1, a fusion partner of the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia, is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and Fe(II)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes conversion of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) in cultured cells and in vitro. Expand
Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis.
The phylogenetic mosaic of chlamydial genes, including a large number of genes with phylogenetic origins from eukaryotes, implies a complex evolution for adaptation to obligate intracellular parasitism. Expand
Improving the accuracy of PSI-BLAST protein database searches with composition-based statistics and other refinements.
The use of composition-based statistics is particularly beneficial for large-scale automated applications of PSI-BLAST, and the use, for each database sequence, of a position-specific scoring system tuned to that sequence's amino acid composition. Expand
De-ubiquitination and ubiquitin ligase domains of A20 downregulate NF-κB signalling
A novel ubiquitin ligase domain is defined and two sequential mechanisms by which A20 downregulates NF-κB signalling are identified, both of which participate in mediating a distinct regulatory effect. Expand
AAA+: A class of chaperone-like ATPases associated with the assembly, operation, and disassembly of protein complexes.
Whole-genome analysis indicates that this class of proteins is ancient and has undergone considerable functional divergence prior to the emergence of the major divisions of life. Expand
Classification and evolution of P-loop GTPases and related ATPases.
The distribution of nucleotide specificity among the proteins of the G TPase superclass indicates that the common ancestor of the entire superclass was a GTPase and that a secondary switch to ATPase activity has occurred on several independent occasions during evolution. Expand
Bacterial rhodopsin: evidence for a new type of phototrophy in the sea.
The results demonstrate that archaeal-like rhodopsins are broadly distributed among different taxa, including members of the domain Bacteria, and indicate that a previously unsuspected mode of bacterially mediated light-driven energy generation may commonly occur in oceanic surface waters worldwide. Expand
Identification of paracaspases and metacaspases: two ancient families of caspase-like proteins, one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma.
The human paracaspase prodomain binds Bcl10, a protein involved in the t(1;14)(p22;q32) translocation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and it is found that this fusion activates NF-kappaB and that the caspase domain is required for this function, since mutation of the conserved catalytic cysteine attenuates NF- kappaB activation. Expand
Role of Rpn11 Metalloprotease in Deubiquitination and Degradation by the 26S Proteasome
These findings reveal an unexpected coupling between substrate deubiquitination and degradation and suggest a unifying rationale for the presence of the lid in eukaryotic proteasomes. Expand