Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.
The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
Conversion of 5-Methylcytosine to 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Mammalian DNA by MLL Partner TET1
It is shown here that TET1, a fusion partner of the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia, is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and Fe(II)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes conversion of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) in cultured cells and in vitro.
Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis.
The phylogenetic mosaic of chlamydial genes, including a large number of genes with phylogenetic origins from eukaryotes, implies a complex evolution for adaptation to obligate intracellular parasitism.
Improving the accuracy of PSI-BLAST protein database searches with composition-based statistics and other refinements.
The use of composition-based statistics is particularly beneficial for large-scale automated applications of PSI-BLAST, and the use, for each database sequence, of a position-specific scoring system tuned to that sequence's amino acid composition.
Classification and evolution of P-loop GTPases and related ATPases.
The distribution of nucleotide specificity among the proteins of the G TPase superclass indicates that the common ancestor of the entire superclass was a GTPase and that a secondary switch to ATPase activity has occurred on several independent occasions during evolution.
AAA+: A class of chaperone-like ATPases associated with the assembly, operation, and disassembly of protein complexes.
Whole-genome analysis indicates that this class of proteins is ancient and has undergone considerable functional divergence prior to the emergence of the major divisions of life.
De-ubiquitination and ubiquitin ligase domains of A20 downregulate NF-κB signalling
A novel ubiquitin ligase domain is defined and two sequential mechanisms by which A20 downregulates NF-κB signalling are identified, both of which participate in mediating a distinct regulatory effect.
Identification of paracaspases and metacaspases: two ancient families of caspase-like proteins, one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma.
Role of Rpn11 Metalloprotease in Deubiquitination and Degradation by the 26S Proteasome
These findings reveal an unexpected coupling between substrate deubiquitination and degradation and suggest a unifying rationale for the presence of the lid in eukaryotic proteasomes.