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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a result of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. However, most of these cells in vivo are immunologically quiescent, a condition restricting HIV-1 replication. Vpr is an HIV-1 virion protein suspected to enhance HIV-1 replication in(More)
vpr is an accessory gene of human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-I). Although unnecessary for viral replication in T cell lines, growing evidence suggests that it is essential for virus replication in monocytes/macrophages and for replication in vivo. We expressed HIV-I vpr in Escherichia coli and purified Vpr by affinity chromatography. In a coprecipitation(More)
Vpr is an HIV-1 auxiliary regulatory protein packaged in the virion. It has been shown to enhance the nuclear transport of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex, activate transcription of cellular and viral promoters, and arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M check-point. We previously identified a cellular protein of 180 kDa (RIP) that interacted with HIV-1 Vpr(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) genome encodes a 15-kDa accessory gene product, Vpr, that is essential for virus replication in primary monocytes/macrophages. Being present in the virion, Vpr is believed to function in the early phases of HIV-1 replication, including nuclear migration of the pre-integration complex and/or transcription of(More)
Previous studies have suggested that CCR4 is particularly important in the selective recruitment of various subsets of leucocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we examined the percentage of CD4(+)/CCR4(+) T cells within circulating lymphocytes in active ankylosing spondylitis (AS), RA and SLE patients.(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is a 15kDa regulatory protein packaged in the HIV-1 virion. Although the molecular mechanism of Vpr function during viral replication remains elusive, Vpr has been found to possess interesting biological activities, including cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M check point, promotion of the HIV-1(More)
By animal-to-animal passage of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in pig-tailed macaques, we have developed a macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease in humans. Passaging was begun with a chimeric virus containing the env gene of HIV-1 HXBc2 and the gag and pol genes of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. SHIV was(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates productively in vitro in CD4(+)-T cells and/or macrophages. In the host, however, HIV-1 replication may be restricted by the quiescence of susceptible cells. Vpr is a 15-kDa late viral gene product, which is assembled in the virion and suspected to enhance HIV-1 replication in the infected host. We(More)
C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are cellular corepressors that are targeted by adenovirus E1A. A conserved motif of E1A (PLDLS) interacts with an N-terminal hydrophobic cleft of CtBPs. Many cellular cofactors also interact with CtBPs through PLDLS-like motifs. E1A interaction with CtBP2 changed the composition of the CtBP2 protein complex and enhanced(More)
We inoculated four rhesus macaques with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239/17E env, a chimeric virus whose env gene was derived from the brain of an SIV-encephalitic macaque. Blood and lymphoid tissues had high frequencies of infected cells. The virus was neuroinvasive, but productive virus replication did not occur in the brain, and(More)