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BACKGROUND Brain metastases are common in patients with metastatic melanoma and median overall survival from their diagnosis is typically 17-22 weeks. We assessed dabrafenib in patients with Val600Glu or Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma metastatic to the brain. METHODS We undertook a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial in 24 centres in six countries. We(More)
Monoclonal antibodies directed against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), such as ipilimumab, yield considerable clinical benefit for patients with metastatic melanoma by inhibiting immune checkpoint activity, but clinical predictors of response to these therapies remain incompletely characterized. To investigate the roles of(More)
Most patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant metastatic melanoma develop resistance to selective RAF kinase inhibitors. The spectrum of clinical genetic resistance mechanisms to RAF inhibitors and options for salvage therapy are incompletely understood. We performed whole-exome sequencing on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors from 45 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies represent an effective treatment option for metastatic melanoma as well as for other cancer entities. They act via blockade of the PD-1 receptor, an inhibitor of the T-cell effector mechanisms that limit immune responses against tumours. As reported for ipilimumab, the anti-PD-1 antibodies(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, activating mutations in the TERT promoter were identified in cutaneous melanoma. We tested a cohort of ocular melanoma samples for similar mutations. METHODS The TERT promoter region was analysed by Sanger sequencing in 47 uveal (ciliary body or choroidal) melanomas and 38 conjunctival melanomas. RESULTS Mutations of the TERT(More)
Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to(More)
Uveal melanoma is the most common malignant tumor of the adult eye. Fifty percent of tumors will eventually metastasize, and there are no effective treatments for them. Recent studies of uveal melanoma have identified activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1, and recurrent mutations in codon 625 of(More)
IMPORTANCE BRAF inhibitors have been licensed for the therapy of BRAF-mutated melanoma. Recently, inflammatory skin lesions clinically resembling erythema nodosum have been reported as therapy side-effects that may lead to treatment discontinuation. OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize cases with BRAF inhibitor-associated erythema nodosum-like(More)
PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are associated with a specific spectrum of immune-related adverse events. This spectrum is different from toxicities known for kinase inhibitors or cytotoxic drugs. Since PD-1 directed therapies show effectivity in an increasing number of malignant diseases, their clinical usage will increase rapidly. Therefore clinicians from(More)