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Southern California is an increasingly urbanized hotspot for surfing, thus it is of great interest to assess the human illness risks associated with this popular ocean recreational water sport from exposure to fecal bacteria contaminated coastal waters. Quantitative microbial risk assessments were applied to eight popular Southern California beaches using(More)
In recent years, network bandwidth and quality has been drastically improved in a speed even much faster than the enhancement of computer performance. Various communication and computing tasks in the fields can be integrated and applied in a distributed system in nowadays. However, those resources are heterogeneous and dynamic in distributed systems(More)
Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a long-lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. In developed countries, centralized water reclamation plants often use these processes for N removal before effluent is used for irrigation or discharged to surface water, thus making this treatment a potentially large source of N₂O in(More)
A direct comparison between parallel activated sludge and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) processes was performed in this study because both treatments received the same primary effluent, although differences may still remain due to different return flow rates. Modern ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron(More)
Effluent dissolved organic matter (EfOM) collected from the secondary-treated wastewater of the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) located in Fountain Valley, California, USA was compared to natural organic matter collected from the Suwannee River (SRNOM), Florida using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron(More)
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) during treatment are modern, based on available literature. Therefore, such emissions were omitted from IPCC's greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting procedures. However, a fraction of wastewater's carbon is(More)
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