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The strong approximations of a class of R-valued martingales are considered. The conditions used in this paper are easier to check than those used in [3] and [9]. As an application, the strong approximation of a class of non-homogenous Markov chains is established, and the asymptotic properties are established for the multi-treatment Markov chain adaptive(More)
Keywords: System dynamics model Energy consumption CO2 emissions STELLA a b s t r a c t It is clear that city must be part of the solution if an urbanizing world is to grapple successfully with ecological challenges such as energy depletion and climate change. A system dynamics model was developed in this study using STELLA platform to model the energy(More)
A novel approach to ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) is described, based on a recently developed liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source. The device is essentially unmodified relative to its implementation in elemental mass spectrometry, where the operational space is characterized by low(More)
—In order to meet the approximate plane-wave irradiation condition, adequate large field or compact range system is needed for RCS measurement of large aircraft targets. However, an outside testing field site or a compact range system is very expensive, so some kinds of RCS extrapolation methods based on near-distance testing have been presented. In this(More)
Urn models have been widely studied and applied in both scientific and social disciplines. In clinical studies, the adoption of urn models in treatment allocation schemes has been proved to be beneficial to both researchers, by providing more efficient clinical trials, and patients, by increasing the probability of receiving the better treatment. In this(More)
Polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been used in this laboratory as stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction of proteins. Greater selectivity has been realized through the functionalization of the PP fibers through the physical adsorption of commercially available head(More)
The characterization of marker components in botanical materials is a challenging task, and the increased consumption of botanicals and dietary supplements demands a greater understanding of the associated health benefits and risks. In order to successfully acquire and compare clinical results and correlate health trends, accurate, precise, and validated(More)
EXTENDED ABSTRACT In many economic and financial applications, the problem of temporal aggregation arises when data are observed at a lower frequency than the data generation frequency of the underlying model. The resulting observed data, which is referred to as the aggregate series, contain less information, and may lead to a distorted view of the true(More)