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One of the major limitations in the use of genetically modified mice for studying cognitive functions is the lack of regional and temporal control of gene function. To overcome these limitations, a forebrain-specific promoter was combined with the tetracycline transactivator system to achieve both regional and temporal control of transgene expression.(More)
Axonal cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are synthesized in the neuronal cell body and transported along axons by slow axonal transport, but attempts to observe this movement directly in living cells have yielded conflicting results. Here we report the direct observation of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein tagged with green fluorescent(More)
A Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML) has been coded in ANSI Standard C; therefore, the program can be used on various computers. Dynamic data allocation is used for MCML, hence the number of tissue layers and grid elements of the grid system can be varied by users at run time. The coordinates of the simulated(More)
Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y.(More)
Recent MRI studies in multiple sclerosis have highlighted the potential importance of spinal cord atrophy (implicating axonal loss) in the development of disability. However, the techniques applied in these initial studies have poor reproducibility which limits their application in the serial monitoring of patients. The aim of this study was to develop a(More)
Theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have implicated the hippocampus, but controversy remains regarding hippocampal abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. In vivo studies of hippocampal anatomy using high resolution magnetic resonance scanning and manual methods for volumetric measurement have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps because(More)
Structural deformity of the hippocampus is characteristic of individuals with very mild and mild forms of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar deformity of the hippocampus can predict the onset of dementia in nondemented elders. Using high dimensional diffeomorphic transformations of a(More)
Observations on naturally occurring gaps in the axonal neurofilament array of cultured neurons have demonstrated that neurofilament polymers move along axons in a rapid, intermittent, and highly asynchronous manner. In contrast, studies on axonal neurofilaments using laser photobleaching have not detected movement. Here, we describe a modified(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in brain gene expression are thought to be responsible for the tolerance, dependence, and neurotoxicity produced by chronic alcohol abuse, but there has been no large scale study of gene expression in human alcoholism. METHODS RNA was extracted from postmortem samples of superior frontal cortex of alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Relative(More)
Recent evidence suggests that mammalian cysteine proteases related to Caenorhabditis elegans CED-3 are key components of mammalian programmed cell death or apoptosis. We have shown recently that the CPP32 and Mch2 alpha cysteine proteases cleave the apoptotic markers poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and lamins, respectively. Here we report the cloning of(More)