L W Kline

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Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induces a dose-dependent relaxation in cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips in vitro. This effect seems to be modulated, in part, via activation of the nonadrenergic noncholinergic nervous system. Blockers of nitric oxide synthesis significantly reduced the CGRP effect. Increases in nitric(More)
Progesterone (P) has an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. Since P levels are elevated during pregnancy, a biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found extensively in the small intestine of both non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. By radioimmunoassay, the levels of CGRP in rats, mice, chickens, bullfrogs and rainbow trout were found to range from 91.5 to 419.1 ng/g tissue. To localize CGRP in the small(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) have been shown to relax various types of smooth muscle, e.g. vascular, uterine and gastric. This study demonstrates that PTH and PTHrP both relaxed cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK)-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips. This relaxation was concentration-dependent. The use(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was shown to relax guinea pig gallbladder strips contracted with cholecystokinin. This relaxation was mediated by PACAP interacting with VIP/PACAP receptors. PACAP was also shown to cause contraction in guinea pig gallbladder strips. The present study demonstrated that calphostin C and(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been shown to relax cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips. This relaxation is dependent on the concentration of CGRP, and is primarily due to the opening of ATP sensitive K+ channels; however, other mechanisms may also be involved. Studies using forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3', 5' cyclic(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been reported to relax, in a concentration-dependent manner, cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips. It is now shown that this CGRP-induced relaxation is body weight dependent with the degree of relaxation inversely related to weight. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that the amount of CGRP(More)
A heterologous radioimmunoassay using a rabbit antiserum raised against human calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was used to measure levels of immunoreactive CGRP (IR-CGRP) in the brain, pituitary, and spinal cord in species representing all classes of vertebrates from cyclostomes to mammals, except amphibians. All the brain extracts except those from(More)
Extracellular recordings made from class III ganglion cells demonstrated a rhythmic bursting firing pattern in response to the offset of a mesopic level stimulus of 15, 30, and 90-s duration. The average bursting frequency was found to be 12.8 +/- 0.3 bursts per second. The bursts of action potentials had a duration of 0.047 +/- 0.002 s and separated by(More)
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