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Transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression is equivocal in normal brain and upregulated in over a dozen central and peripheral diseases/disorders. The patterns of specific expression of cytokines differ in these diseases. Published data indicate that these cytokines are produced by and act on both neurons and(More)
If cytokines are constitutively expressed by and act on neurons in normal adult brain, then we may have to modify our current view that they are predominantly inflammatory mediators. We critically reviewed the literature to determine whether we could find experimental basis for such a modification. We focused on two "proinflammatory" cytokines, interleukin(More)
A cDNA has been isolated from a human brain expression library using anti-bovine glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antibodies. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides, which codes for 258 amino acids. The 258-amino-acid sequence is 95% homologous to the carboxy terminus of human liver GDH. This high degree of homology indicates that the cDNA codes(More)
Primary rat astrocytes were found by immunohistochemistry to display positive staining for endothelin-3, located predominantly in the perinuclear area. The ability of these cells to produce and release endothelin-3 was confirmed by a combination of reverse-phase HPLC and radioimmunoassay, specific for endothelin-3, which demonstrated immunoreactive peptide(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) are proinflammatory cytokines that are constitutively expressed in healthy, adult brain where they mediate normal neural functions such as sleep. They are neuromodulators expressed by and acting on neurons and glia. IL-1 and TNFalpha expression is upregulated in several important(More)
There is an increasingly impressive database concerning the possible involvement of cytokines in depression and their role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. Based on the discussions which took place on these issues at a recent meeting held in Roscoff, France, this perspective summarizes in a critical way the evidence in favor of such a(More)
Gliosis is the most frequent and therefore important neurocellular reaction to brain insult occurring in diseases ranging from AIDS to infarction. Neuropathological diagnosis of gliosis is based on morphological changes of brain glial cells. Changes commonly agreed to reflect gliosis are qualitative increases in size, number and glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is elevated in brain tissue of individuals who died with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other diseases where this cytokine likely stimulates reactive astrocytosis. IL-1 stimulates, among others, production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(More)
A 2.4 kb cDNA clone containing the coding sequence for glutamine synthetase (GS) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library, and a probe constructed from this cDNA was utilized in Northern analysis of total RNA to study the tissue distribution and the ontogeny of GS mRNA expression in the rat brain from embryonic day 14 (E14) to adulthood. The levels of GS(More)
Although growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) was initially considered to be neuron-specific, it has more recently been found in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, glial cell equivalents in embryonic Drosophila and other non-neuronal cells. Here I summarize evidence for the presence of GAP-43 in macroglial cells (i.e., astrocytes and(More)