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Common clinical beliefs about the relationship between postural characteristics and pain are based on mainly anecdotal evidence. This study examined the reliability of physical characteristics of the head, shoulders and thoracic spine and identified relationships among them. Measurements were made from photographs of subjects in comfortable erect standing.(More)
The intent of this study was to describe the effects of long term paraplegia and wheelchair use on upper limb function. Bilateral upper extremity isokinetic and grip strength, pain, and active range of motion were compared in 52 men with paraplegia (mean age 44 years; mean duration of spinal cord injury (SCI) 17 years) and 52 age and activity level matched(More)
Fresh lumbar vertebral columns from nine male subjects aged from six to 61 years were tested for creep deformation and hysteresis. The standard test applied a load of 3.5 kg for one hour through a weight and pulley circuit. Additional tests used 1 kg and 5.5 kg for varying periods of time. The four oldest columns showed a pronounced decrease in the range of(More)
In an autopsy study of 180 cervical spines, 109 were from victims of fatal blunt injury. A search was made for injuries to the dorsal root ganglia. The whole cervical spines, from the skull base to T1, were formalin fixed, deep frozen and sagittally sectioned on a specially adapted band saw in 2.5 mm thick slices. In 15 of the 109 fatally injured(More)
The study was designed to test if a manipulative therapist (MT) using manual examination techniques alone or when accompanied by a verbal response from the subject as to the pain produced, could diagnose the lumbar segmental level responsible for a subjects low back pain and referred pain. The study consisted of prospective and retrospective parts where the(More)
The ranges of sagittal and horizontal plane movements of the human lumbar vertebral column have been measured in 204 cadavers and 437 living subjects of both sexes. The cadaveric measurements were made on fresh specimens within 24-48 hours of death and compared with similar measurements from the living subjects. The data from the two sources correlate well(More)
Facet arthrograms in patients with lumbar spondylolyses show spread of contrast medium through pars interarticularis defects into the adjacent ipsilateral facet joint space and across the midline into the contralateral joint space. Transverse and sagittal sections of facet joints from 141 postmortem lumbar spines were studied. Five examples of spondylolysis(More)
The influence of the posterior vertebral ligamentous and bony elements on the sagittal range of motion of the lumbar spine has been investigated by observing the effects of sectioning ligaments and pedicles in 17 cadavers of both sexes with an age range from 14 to 78 years. The main investigation showed that the apophyseal joints provide a greater restraint(More)
Although many manual handling activities involve combinations of pull, lift, carry, lower and push, there are few reports of investigation of how to assess the risk in these combination tasks. Two strategies have been suggested in the literature for estimating the risk in a combination task based on the measures of the separate components of that task. The(More)