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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for endothelial cells. VEGF is synthesized and secreted by many differentiated cells in response to a variety of stimuli including hypoxia. VEGF is expressed in a variety of tissues as multiple homodimeric forms (121, 165, 189, and 206 amino acids/monomer) resulting from alternative(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in various cell types is induced by hypoxia and other stimuli. VEGF mediates endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, vascular growth, and vascular permeability via the endothelial cell receptors, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR)/fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1) and FLT-1. Alanine-scanning(More)
Access of recombinant proteins to the retina following intravitreal administration is poorly understood. A study was conducted in male Rhesus monkeys (15 to 28 mo of age; 2.8-3.3 kg) in order to compare the intraocular tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and safety of 125Iodine (I)-labeled full-length humanized rhuMAb HER2 antibody (148 kD) and of(More)
Current treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) requires an intravenous infusion (1.5-3 h) because the clearance of tPA from the circulation is rapid (t 1/2 approximately 6 min). We have developed a tPA variant, T103N,N117Q, KHRR(296-299)AAAA (TNK-tPA) that has substantially slower in vivo clearance (1.9 vs. 16.1 ml per min per kg for tPA in(More)
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) bioresorbable microspheres are used for controlled-release drug delivery and are particularly promising for ocular indications. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb HER2) in rabbits after bolus intravitreal administration of(More)
Preparations of recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Escherichia coli were compared using a variety of analytical methods. Amino terminal sequence analyses of both the CHO- and E. coli-derived VEGF165 confirmed the predicted amino terminal sequence for VEGF165, although the CHO(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor with a unique specificity for vascular endothelial cells. In addition to its role in vasculogenesis and embryonic angiogenesis, VEGF is implicated in pathologic neovascularization associated with tumors and diabetic retinopathy. Four different constructs of a short variant of VEGF(More)
Site directed mutagenesis was used to construct a t-PA variant that contains an additional glycosylation site in the first kringle domain (T103N) combined with a tetra-alanine substitution in the protease domain (KHRR 296-299 AAAA). This combination variant has a plasma clearance rate that is 4.5-fold slower in rats and 5.4-fold slower in rabbits than t-PA.(More)
Variants of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were constructed with selected cysteines replaced by alanine to evaluate the role of an unpaired cysteine, which has been presumed to be in the growth factor module. C75A, C83A, C84A and CC83-84AA variants of t-PA were expressed transiently in human embryonic kidney cells. The biochemical properties of(More)
Tyrosylprolylarginyl chloromethyl ketone (YPRck) is a radioiodinatable inhibitor that irreversibly binds the active site of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). A two-step reaction is employed where (1) the YPRck reagent is iodinated and (2) the 125I-YPRck is reacted with the tPA sample; therefore the oxidative effects of conventional protein iodination are(More)
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