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The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed in immune cells and plays a role in proinflammatory cytokine release from monocytes and macrophages. This study investigated the coinheritance of 12 functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human P2X(7) gene (P2RX7), and the functional effect of each singly and in(More)
The P2X7 receptor is a trimeric ATP-gated cation channel found predominantly, but not exclusively, on immune cells. P2X7 activation results in a number of downstream events, including the release of proinflammatory mediators and cell death and proliferation. As such, P2X7 plays important roles in various inflammatory, immune, neurologic and musculoskeletal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ATP-gated P2X(7) receptor has been shown to play a role in several inflammatory processes, making it an attractive target for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. We have recently identified a novel set of cyclic imide compounds that inhibited P2X(7) receptor-mediated dye uptake in human macrophage THP-1 cells. In this study the(More)
The P2X4 receptor is involved in endothelium-dependent changes in large arterial tone in response to shear stress and is, therefore, potentially relevant to arterial compliance and pulse pressure. Four identified nonsynonymous polymorphisms in P2RX4 were reproduced in recombinantly expressed human P2X4. Electrophysiological studies showed that one of these,(More)
The human P2X7 receptor is a two-transmembrane ionotropic receptor which has a ubiquitous distribution and is most highly expressed on immune cells. In macrophages and similar myeloid cells primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activation of P2X7 by extracellular ATP opens a cation channel/pore allowing massive K+ efflux associated with processing and(More)
Neutrophils undergo rapid constitutive apoptosis that is delayed by a range of pathogen- and host-derived inflammatory mediators. We have investigated the ability of the nucleotide ATP, to which neutrophils are exposed both in the circulation and at sites of inflammation, to modulate the lifespan of human neutrophils. We found that physiologically relevant(More)
The P2RX7 gene is highly polymorphic, and many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlie the wide variation observed in P2X7 receptor responses. We review the discovery of those non-synonymous SNPs that affect receptor function and compare their frequencies in different ethnic populations. Analysis of pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) predicts a(More)
The P2X7 receptor gene (P2RX7) is highly polymorphic with five previously described loss-of-function (LOF) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; c.151+1G>T, c.946G>A, c.1096C>G, c.1513A>C and c.1729T>A) and one gain-of-function SNP (c.489C>T). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the functional P2RX7 SNPs are associated with lumbar spine (LS)(More)
The purinergic P2X7 receptor has a major role in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity and changes in receptor function may therefore affect bone mass in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine the association of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2RX7 gene to bone mass and fracture incidence in post-menopausal women.(More)
ATP-gated P2X(4) receptors (P2X(4)R) in macrophages and microglia have been implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain by currently unidentified mechanisms. P2X(4)R are found predominantly in intracellular lysosomal compartments but can be rapidly trafficked to the surface membrane by procedures that induce endolysosomal secretion. We studied total and(More)