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In several countries, private tutoring has developed as a system of education parallel to traditional schooling. Students from wealthy families have greater access to this system, and the advantages they obtain tend to exaggerate socio-economic inequities. Low-cost programmable computing devices have the potential to execute at least some tasks performed by(More)
— Smartcards are the most secure portable computing device today. The first smartcard was developed by BULL for the French banking system. They have been used successfully in applications involving money, proprietary and personal data (such as banking, healthcare, insurance, etc.). Electronic ticketing in public transportation based on smart cards is(More)
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