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Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mutate alpha Cys418 and beta Cys447 in the M4 domain of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The M4 region is a transmembrane domain thought to be located at the lipid-protein interface. By whole-cell voltage clamp analysis, mutation of both alpha subunits to alpha Trp418(More)
BACKGROUND Heterozygous paired box6 (Pax6) mutations lead to abnormal glucose metabolism in mice older than 6 months as well as in human beings. Our previous study found that Pax6 deficiency caused down-expression of prohormone convertase 1/3 (Pcsk1), resulting in defective proinsulin processing. As a protein cleaving enzyme, in addition to its expression,(More)
This review focuses on neuroadaptation to nicotine. The first part of the paper delineates some possible general mechanisms subserving neuroadaptation to commonly abused drugs. The postulated role of the mesocorticolimbic neuroanatomical pathway and drug-receptor desensitization mechanisms in the establishment of tolerance to, dependence on, and withdrawal(More)
We have examined the effects of changing extracellular pH on the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo californica using ion flux and electrophysiological methods. Agonist-induced cation efflux from vesicles containing purified, reconstituted receptors showed a monotonic dependence on external hydrogen ion concentration with maximal(More)
1. Muscle and electric organ acetylcholine receptors (AChR's) were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and differential effects of noncompetitive blockers on each type of receptor were analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. The positively charged channel blockers, phencyclidine (PCP) and tetracaine, displayed a much lower potency on muscle(More)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met are widely expressed in the developing and adult brain. However, little is known about the role of HGF during the development of the human dopaminergic neuronal system. We have established telomerase-immortalized dopaminergic progenitor cells isolated from the fetal striatum that express markers for(More)
Lung fibrosis is characterized by vascular leakage and myofibroblast recruitment, and both phenomena are mediated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) via its type-1 receptor (LPA1). Following lung damage, the accumulated myofibroblasts activate and secrete excessive extracellular matrix (ECM), and form fibrotic foci. Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived(More)
Pax6 is a key regulator in the neuronal fate determination as well as the proliferation of neural stem cells, but the mechanisms are still unknown. Our study shows that Pax6 regulate the proliferation of neural progenitor cells of cortical subventricular zone, through direct modulation of the Sox2 expression during the late developmental stage in mice. We(More)
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have the capacity for self-renewal and exhibit multipotentiality. hES cells have promise for serving as an unlimited source of ideal seed cells for cell transplantation. However, the rejection that occurs between the transplant recipient and the transplanted cell poses a major challenge for therapeutic transplantation. This(More)