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An analysis was undertaken of 458 consecutive carotid endarterectomies performed over 6 years with the patient under general anesthesia and with electroencephalographic monitoring. Seventy patients (15%) had electroencephalographic changes suggestive of ischemia with carotid clamping and had shunts placed. Ischemic encephalographic changes occurred in 26%(More)
In 20 patients with cervical spine or cord lesions, we examined motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by transcranially applied magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. We used a large-diameter (12 cm) coil to induce equal current in both left and right hemispheres. The MEPs were recorded simultaneously from multiple muscles covering the C5 to C8 myotome(More)