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Three groups of gamma-aminobutyric acid--containing neurons were found in the mammillary region of the posterior hypothalamus. The groups correspond to the tuberal, caudal, and postmammillary caudal magnocellular nuclei. Many cells in these nuclei were retrogradely labeled with fast blue after the injection of this fluorescent dye into the neocortex.(More)
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta are excited by nicotine and acetylcholine, and possess both high-affinity nicotine binding sites and intense acetylcholinesterase activity, consistent with a cholinoceptive role. A probable source of cholinergic afferents is the pedunculopontine nucleus, which forms part of a prominent group of(More)
In this study, we investigated the effects of acute caffeine administration on the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Caffeine significantly depressed the firing rates of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (A10 group), but had no significant effect on the firing rates of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra zona compacta (A9 group). The(More)
Certain neurons in the brain are specifically and intensely stained by a histochemical method which demonstrates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH-diaphorase activity. The cell types containing this enzyme in certain areas of the rat forebrain were examined by combining NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry with the indirect immunofluorescence(More)
Vanderhaeghen et al. reported the occurrence of gastrin-like immunoreactivity in the mammalian brain. Subsequent studies have revealed that this immunoreactivity corresponded mainly to the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), which has a COOH-terminal pentapeptide identical to gastrin. Also, two peptides resembling the NH- and the(More)
The responses of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to iontophoretically administered dopamine and intravenous apomorphine were compared to the responses of spontaneously active neurons in the caudate nucleus. Dopaminergic cells were six to ten times more sensitive to dopamine and intravenous apomorphine than 86 percent of the caudate cells tested. This(More)