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Soil warming has the potential to alter both soil and plant processes that affect carbon storage in forest ecosystems. We have quantified these effects in a large, long-term (7-y) soil-warming study in a deciduous forest in New England. Soil warming has resulted in carbon losses from the soil and stimulated carbon gains in the woody tissue of trees. The(More)
Global climate change is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystems in a variety of ways. Some of the more well-studied effects include the biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system that can either increase or decrease the atmospheric load of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Less well-studied are the effects of climate change(More)
The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to microbes and danger signals by processing and activating proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. We found here that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was restricted to interphase of the cell cycle by NEK7, a serine-threonine kinase previously linked to mitosis. Activation of the NLRP3(More)
Disease-related amyloidogenic propensity has been unexpectedly found in proteins driven to adopt a monomeric uncomplexed state at high concentrations under near-physiological conditions. This situation occasionally arises in new health treatments, such as kidney dialysis. Assuming that under such conditions a partial retention of native structure takes(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from transmission electron cryomicroscopy images is a technique for 3D structure determination of macromolecular complexes such as spherical viruses with icosahedral symmetry. To calculate virus structures to higher resolution, it is necessary to combine information from hundreds (perhaps thousands) of high resolution(More)
Atmospheric inputs of N and S in bulk deposition (open collectors) and throughfall (beneath canopy collectors) were measured in and adjacent to two Class 1 wilderness areas of the northeastern US. In general, atmospheric S inputs followed our expectations with throughfall S fluxes increasing with elevation in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and(More)
Hydration shells of normal proteins display regions of highly structured water as well as patches of less structured bulk-like water. Recent studies suggest that isomers with larger surface densities of patches of bulk-like water have an increased propensity to aggregate. These aggregates are toxic to the cellular environment. Hence, the early detection of(More)
We compare a nonlinear model for the dielectric effect with a standard discontinuous dielectric model. We also compare both with a discontinuous dielectric model which has an intermediate value in a region between the low dielectric and high dielectric regions in the standard model. These results demonstrate that predictions of the electrostatic environment(More)
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