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To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
Important aspects of cell cycle regulation are the checkpoints, which respond to a variety of cellular stresses to inhibit cell cycle progression and act as protective mechanisms to ensure genomic integrity. An increasing number of tumor suppressors are being demonstrated to have roles in checkpoint mechanisms, implying that checkpoint dysfunction is likely(More)
Nine-day-old harlequin (Hq) mice carrying the hypomorphic apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)(Hq) mutation expressed 60% less AIF, 18% less respiratory chain complex I and 30% less catalase than their wild-type (Wt) littermates. Compared with Wt, the infarct volume after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was reduced by 53 and 43% in male (YX(Hq)) and female (X(Hq)X(Hq))(More)
Genetic studies identified Itch, which is a homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus (Hect) domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is disrupted in non-agouti lethal mice or Itchy mice. Itch-deficiency results in abnormal immune responses and constant itching in the skin. Here, Itch was shown to associate with Notch, a protein(More)
At harvest traits such as seed weight are the sum of development and responses to stresses over the growing season and particularly during the reproductive phase of growth. The aim here was to measure quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the seed weight from early development to drying post harvest. One hundred forty-three F(5) derived recombinant(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of β cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of β cells. In this(More)
The large majority of structural MRI studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated volumetric changes in chronic medicated patients in whom course of illness and treatment effects may impact anatomic measurements. Further, in few studies, separate measurements of cortical thickness and surface area have been performed that reflect different(More)
The CDKN2 gene, encoding the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p16, is a tumour suppressor gene involved in melanoma and maps to chromosome band 9p22. Mutations or interstitial deletions of this gene have been found both in the germline of familial melanoma cases and somatically in melanoma cell lines. Previous mutation analyses of melanoma cell lines have(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive β-cell dysfunction hinders the maintenance of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, but comparative data on β-cell-protective therapies are lacking in the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated the comparative glycaemic efficacy and impact on β-cell function of three antihyperglycaemic agents that have a β-cell-protective(More)
A series of hydroxamates, which are not metalloprotease inhibitors, have been found to be selectively toxic to a range of transformed and human tumour cells without killing normal cells (fibroblasts, melanocytes) at the same concentrations. Within 24 h of treatment, drug action is characterized by morphological reversion of tumour cells to a more normal(More)