Learn More
Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
BACKGROUND Activin B has been reported to promote the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes in vitro via the RhoA-JNK signaling pathway, whereas its in vivo role and mechanism in wound healing process has not yet been elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we explored the potential mechanism by which activin B induces epithelial wound(More)
Microbes are key components of the soil environment, playing an important role in maintaining soil health, sustainability, and productivity. The composition and structure of soil bacterial communities were examined in winter wheat–rice (WR) and winter wheat–maize (WM) cropping systems derived from five locations in the Low-Middle Yangtze River plain and the(More)
NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses(More)
Induction of effective antibody responses against HIV-1 infection remains an elusive goal for vaccine development. Progress may require in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neutralization by monoclonal antibodies. We have analyzed the molecular actions of two rare, broadly neutralizing, human monoclonal antibodies, 4E10 and 2F5, which(More)
CD38 is an ectocyclase that converts NAD+ to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). Here we report that in addition to CD38 ecto-catalysis, intracellularly expressed CD38 may catalyze NAD+-->cADPr conversion to cause cytosolic Ca2+ release. High levels of CD38 were found in the plasma membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear(More)
This study is aimed at investigating whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell- (hucMSC-) derived exosomes (hucMSC-exosomes) have a protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Exosomes were characterized under transmission electron microscopy and the particles of exosomes were further examined through nanoparticle tracking analysis.(More)
Edwardsiella tarda is a bacterial pathogen that can infect both humans and animals. TX1, an Ed. tarda strain isolated from diseased fish, was found to produce autoinducer 2 (AI-2)-like activity that was growth phase dependent and modulated by growth conditions. The gene coding for the AI-2 synthase was cloned from TX1 and designated luxS(Et)(.) LuxS(Et) was(More)
Syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria have been identified as key organisms for efficient biogas production from protein-rich materials. They normally grow as lithotrophs or heterotrophs, producing acetate through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but when growing in syntrophy with methanogens, they reportedly reverse this pathway and oxidize acetate to hydrogen(More)
sFlt-1 (soluble Flt-1) potently inhibits angiogenesis by binding extracellularly to VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). In the present paper, we report that hypoxia down-regulates sFlt-1 expression in HMVECs (human microvascular endothelial cells), a constituent of microvessels where angiogenesis occurs. Hypoxia (5-1% O₂) increased VEGF expression in(More)