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Dopamine receptors are the principal targets of drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Among the five mammalian dopamine-receptor subtypes, the D4 subtype is of particular interest because of its high affinity for the atypical neuroleptic clozapine. Interest in clozapine stems from its effectiveness in reducing positive and negative symptoms in(More)
The pathways governing signal transduction in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopamine systems of the brain are of central importance in a variety of drug actions and neurological diseases. We have analyzed the regional, cellular, and subcellular distribution of the closely related D1 and D5 subtypes of dopamine receptors in the cerebral cortex and(More)
Muscarinic m1 receptors traditionally are considered to be postsynaptic to cholinergic fibers, while m2 receptors are largely presynaptic receptors associated with axons. We have examined the distribution of these receptor proteins in the monkey cerebral cortex and obtained results that are at odds with this expectation. Using immunohistochemistry with(More)
Golgi-Stensaas and rapid-Golgi staining techniques are used to study neuronal differentiation in the developing human prefrontal cortex in fetuses, premature infants, and full-term newborns from 10.5 to 40 weeks of gestation. Horizontal neurons (Cajal-Retzius neurons) above the cortical plate (in the marginal zone) and randomly oriented neurons below the(More)
The present study shows that in the prenatal rat neocortex the GABA immunoreactive neurons are not limited to the marginal, subplate, and intermediate zones, but are also found in all fetal zones of the cerebral anlage. The first GABA-ergic cells are observed on embryonic day 14 in the plexiform primordium. On embryonic day 15, a second population of(More)
As a result of alternative splicing, the D2 gene of the dopamine receptor family exists in two isoforms. The D2 long is characterized by the insertion of 29 amino acids in the third cytoplasmic loop, which is absent in the short isoform. We have produced subtype-specific antibodies against both the D2 short and D2 long isoforms and found a unique(More)
The synergistic response of cells to the stimulation of multiple receptors has been ascribed to receptor cross talk; however, the specific molecules that mediate the resultant signal amplification have not been defined. Here a 24-kilodalton single transmembrane protein, designated calcyon, we functionally characterize that interacts with the D1 dopamine(More)
The quantitative development of neurons in the human dorsolateral and lateral prefrontal cortex was studied in Golgi-impregnated tissue from postmortem brains ranging from 13.5 weeks of gestation up to the second postnatal month. Pyramidal neurons in the future layers III and V of the cortical plate, as well as different types of neurons in the transient(More)
To achieve a better understanding of how D5 dopamine receptors mediate the actions of dopamine in brain, we have developed antibodies specific for the D5 receptor. D5 antibodies reacted with recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells expressing the D5 receptor but not with the D1 receptor or a variety of other catecholaminergic and muscarinic receptors.(More)
The aim of this study was to analyze the granule cell population of the dentate gyrus both in healthy rhesus monkeys and in humans free of mental and neurological disorders. Brains of neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys as well as brains of fetal, neonatal and adult humans were impregnated with Golgi methods. The results show that a significant population of(More)