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Gastric cancer develops through the accumulation of multiple genetic lesions that involve oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and DNA mismatch repair genes. Lauren's classification of gastric carcinoma does not correlate with cellular phenotypes expressed by neoplastic cells and gastric and intestinal cell differentiation markers are widely expressed in both(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained acid inhibition with PPI stimulates gastrin secretion, exerting a proliferative drive on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) of the oxyntic mucosa. It may also accelerate development of gastric gland atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals. AIMS To evaluate gastric exocrine and endocrine cell changes in GERD patients(More)
Finding the best technique to identify BRAF mutations with a high sensitivity and specificity is mandatory for accurate patient selection for target therapy. BRAF mutation frequency ranges from 40 to 60% depending on melanoma clinical characteristics and detection technique used.Intertumoral heterogeneity could lead to misinterpretation of BRAF mutational(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS The HER2 status of small endoscopic biopsies is important for predicting the eligibility of patients with metastatic HER2-positive gastric cancer or gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer for anti-HER2 therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The aim of this study was to identify the minimum biopsy set required(More)
BACKGROUND Histology is generally considered as a tool of limited value in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM To reevaluate the diagnostic role of histological alterations in GERD, using multiple biopsy sites and an appropriate control group. METHODS We studied 135 patients with typical and atypical symptoms of GERD. They(More)
Microscopic esophagitis (ME) is common in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and dilation of intercellular spaces (DIS) has been regarded as the potential main mechanism of symptom generation. We aimed to compare these histological abnormalities in healthy volunteers (HVs) and patients with erosive esophagitis (EE), NERD, and functional(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a catabolizing enzyme of tryptophan, is supposed to play a role in tumor immune escape. Its expression in solid tumors has not yet been well elucidated: IDO can be expressed by the tumor cells themselves, or by ill-defined infiltrating cells, possibly depending on tumor type. We have investigated IDO expression in 25 cases(More)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is the third most common cancer associated with BRCA mutations. Most notice has been given to BRCA2, while the association between BRCA1 and PC is less widely reported. Recently, PALB2 has been implicated in both PC and breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. We selected 29 Italian PC patients from a case–control study of PC(More)
No gold standard test exists for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diagnostic difficulties are greatest when reflux symptoms occur without visible esophageal mucosal damage at conventional endoscopy. However, two thirds of such patients do have microscopic esophageal lesions. This study aimed to develop and standardize criteria for recognizing these(More)
Patients with non-erosive reflux disease may show microscopic damage. This study is aimed to describe distribution, sensitivity, and specificity of histological lesions (i.e., basal cell hyperplasia—BH, papillae elongation—PE, dilatation of intercellular spaces—DIS, intraepithelial eosinophils—IE, neutrophils, and erosions) and sampling criteria. Four(More)