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We measured serum concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, folate, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol, zinc, magnesium, copper, iron, and ferritin as well as hemoglobin, hematocrit, percentage transferrin saturation, and total iron-binding capacity in athletes who ingested a multivitamin and mineral supplement for 3(More)
1. Exercise-induced haemolysis has been implicated in the sub-optimal iron status of endurance-trained athletes. Accordingly, erythrocyte survival studies using 51Cr were performed on male and female distance runners (n = 20) and sedentary control subjects (n = 10) in order to determine whether the rate of erythrocyte destruction was altered as a(More)
1. It has been suggested that the physiological consequences of strenuous exercise are analogous to those of the acute-phase response. 2. In 70 male and 20 female competitive distance runners, a marked, but transient, neutrophil leucocytosis occurred immediately after these athletes completed a standard (42 km) marathon race. Concomitant significant(More)
There is limited scientific justification for the widespread use of vitamin and mineral supplements by athletes. We used a 9-mo, placebo-controlled crossover study design to determine whether a multivitamin and mineral supplement influenced the athletic performance of 30 competitive male athletes. At 0, 3, 6, and 9 mo the runners performed a progressive(More)
In order to determine whether dietary inadequacies can explain the sub-optimal iron status widely documented in endurance-trained athletes, the food intake records of Fe-deficient and Fe-replete distance runners and non-exercising controls of both sexes were analysed. In all the male study groups the mean dietary Fe intake met the recommended dietary(More)
In order to critically define the apparently widespread condition 'sports anemia', the red cell indices and iron status of male distance runners and triathletes, and female distance runners and ballet dancers were compared to non-exercising controls of both sexes. The mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels of all groups were within the normal ranges and there was no(More)
We used the Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorder Inventory as a measure of the incidence of anorexia nervosa in 125 female distance runners. The incidence of normal eating attitudes symptomatic of anorexia nervosa was 14% (18 runners). Of these, only five runners (4%) also had a low body mass and a past history of amenorrhea and only one subject (0.8%)(More)
Erythropoietic adaptations involving the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) and erythropoietin production have been implicated in the etiology of reduced blood haemoglobin concentrations in sportspersons (known as sports anaemia). A significant increase in the half-saturation pressure indicating a right-shift in the ODC was measured in 34 male [25.8-27.4 mmHg(More)
To characterize the so-called pseudoanaemia of endurance-trained athletes, the plasma volume (PV), red cell volume (RCV) and total blood volume (TBV) of 12 male and 12 female athletes and 5 male and 5 female nonexercising controls were measured using 125I-labelled human serum albumin and 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes. The mean PV of the male athletes (52.8(More)