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The neural circuitry that increases attention to goal-relevant stimuli when we are in danger of becoming distracted is a matter of active debate. To address several long-standing controversies, we asked participants to identify a letter presented either visually or auditorily while we varied the amount of cross-modal distraction from an irrelevant letter in(More)
Momentary reductions of attention can have extremely adverse outcomes, but it remains unclear whether increased distraction from irrelevant stimuli contributes to such outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined trial-by-trial relationships between brain activity and response time in twenty healthy adults while they performed a cross-modal(More)
The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine factors preventing medication nonadherence in community-dwelling older adults with multiple illnesses (multimorbidity). Nonadherence threatens successful treatment of multimorbidity. Adherence problems can be intentional (e.g., deliberately choosing not to take medicines or to change medication dosage) or unintentional (e.g., forgetting(More)
OBJECTIVE Although health behavior theories assume a role of the context in health behavior self-regulation, this role is often weakly specified and rarely examined. The two studies in this article test whether properties of the environment (districts) affect if and how health-related cognitions are translated into physical activity. METHODS Multilevel(More)
OBJECTIVES Commonly, health behaviour theories have been applied to single behaviours, giving insights into specific behaviours but providing little knowledge on how individuals pursue an overall healthy lifestyle. In the context of diet and physical activity, we investigated the extent to which cross-behaviour cognitions, namely transfer cognitions and(More)
The TGFβ and Ras-MAPK pathways play critical roles in cell development and cell cycle regulation, as well as in tumor formation and metastasis. In the absence of cellular transformation, these pathways operate in opposition to one another, where TGFβ maintains an undifferentiated cell state and suppresses proliferation, while Ras-MAPK pathways promote(More)
Multimorbidity challenges quality of life (QoL) in old age. Anticipating and providing social support have been shown to promote QoL whereas receiving support often had detrimental effects. Little is known about which psychological processes explain these effects. This study examines the effects of receiving, anticipating and providing emotional support on(More)
The effects of morphine on extracellular dopamine levels in brain have never been studied over a wide range of doses within a single study. This has made it difficult to make definitive interpretations of drug interactions with morphine. An inhibition of morphine-induced increases in dopamine could be interpreted as either antagonism or potentiation(More)
OBJECTIVES The Common-Sense Model assumes that individuals form subjective representations about their illnesses, which in turn guide cognitive and behavioural responses. This assumption is complicated in individuals with multimorbidity, and it is an open question to which degree illness-specific and person-level factors determine the representations of(More)