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Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a(More)
Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to have widespread implications for marine organisms, yet the capacity for species to acclimate or adapt over this century remains unknown. Recent transgenerational studies have shown that for some marine species, exposure of adults to OA can facilitate positive carryover effects to their larval and juvenile offspring(More)
STUDY DESIGN The biomechanical stability of six different methods of cervical spine stabilization, three using multistrand cables, were evaluated in a bovine model. OBJECTIVES To quantify and compare the in vitro biomechanical properties of multistrand cables used for posterior cervical wiring to standard cervical fixation techniques. SUMMARY OF(More)
STUDY DESIGN Spinal kinematics after the implementation of rigid spinal instrumentation or the achievement of a solid fusion was studied using a sheep posterolateral spinal arthrodesis model. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of rigid spinal instrumentation or solid fusion on spinal kinematic parameters. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Numerous studies(More)
Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including(More)
We examined compliance with and the effects of melatonin supplementation on breast cancer biomarkers (estradiol, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, postmenopausal women with a prior(More)
This paper reports on the first functional 6V, 4Mb silicon nanocrystal based nonvolatile memory array using conventional 90nm and 0.25/spl mu/m process technologies. The silicon nanocrystal based NOR Flash can be programmed and erased using conventional techniques in floating gate memories. Key aspects of this technology are the ability to form nanocrystals(More)
Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated(More)
The plasma density of the electron-cyclotron resonance discharge (ECRD) has been measured with an 8-mm Fabry-Perot microwave interferometer. The ECRD experiment has been described in Quarterly Progress Report No. 73 (pages 81-85) and Quarterly Progress Report No. 75 (pages 120-121). The discharge is driven by a 2. 4-Gc, 1. 2-kw magnetron, powered by an(More)
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