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Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia may result from retrograde colonization of the pharynx from the stomach, and this may be more likely when the gastric pH is relatively high. We studied the rate of nosocomial pneumonia among 130 patients given mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit who were receiving as prophylaxis for stress ulcer either(More)
We prospectively studied 526 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and 799 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a municipal hospital over a 20-month period. Rates of nosocomial infection were higher in the SICU patients (31% vs 24%). The SICU patients had more urinary tract infections, bacteremias, and wound(More)
We studied risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and fatality in 233 intensive care unit patients requiring continuous mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 49 (21%) of the 233 patients. Of the 8 risk factors univariately associated with the development of pneumonia, only the presence of an intracranial pressure monitor (p(More)
We conducted a Phase I open-label trial of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) for the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and severe AIDS-related complex. A single daily dose of ddI was administered orally to 34 patients (17 with AIDS and 17 with AIDS-related complex) for a median of 12 weeks (range, 2 to 56). We studied six dose levels from(More)
The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers and antibody to the delta agent (anti-delta) was determined for 112 parenteral drug abusers entering a methadone maintenance program. Markers of HBV infection were found in 87.5 percent of the group, and seropositivity was significantly associated with duration of drug abuse (p = 0.02). Antibody to the(More)
We performed a serosurvey of 133 embalmers in an urban area where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is prevalent. Although we found histories of needlesticks to be common, and the seropositivity rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (13%) was approximately twice that of a blood donor comparison group, HIV antibody was uniformly absent in 129 embalmers(More)
We studied rates of peripheral intravenous (IV) catheter tip and insertion site colonization after randomly assigning patients to transparent polyurethane (TP) dressings (N = 316) or dry gauze (DG) dressings (N = 421). The study was conducted during both summer and fall seasons, in a facility which lacked air conditioning. All patients had a teflon plastic(More)
To assess the occupational risk of hepatitis B infection in emergency medical personnel, a seroepidemiologic survey of 87 emergency medical technicians and paramedics was conducted. Serologic markers indicating exposure to hepatitis B virus were detected in 18 percent. The prevalence of markers was associated with race (p = 0.006), with a relative risk of(More)
BACKGROUND A new enteric-coated (EC) didanosine (ddI) formulation (Videx EC; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.) may be better tolerated than the tablet form because it lacks the buffer component thought to be responsible for diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the frequency and magnitude of GI side(More)