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In late summer through early winter of 1998, there were several outbreaks of respiratory disease in the swine herds of North Carolina, Texas, Minnesota, and Iowa. Four viral isolates from outbreaks in different states were analyzed genetically. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the four swine viruses had emerged through two different(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a sequence-specific transcription factor that modulates the response of cells to DNA damage. Recent studies suggest that full transcriptional activity of p53 requires the coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 and PCAF. These coactivators interact with each other, and both possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase(More)
When capsaicin, the pungent compound in hot pepper, is applied to epithelia it produces pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. We investigated, using whole cell path clamp, whether some of these responses induced by capsaicin could be a consequence of capsaicin blocking I(A) currents, a reduction in which, such as occurs in injury, increases neuronal(More)
We have created a transgenic mouse with a hypomorphic allele of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (Vmat2) gene by gene targeting. These mice (KA1) have profound changes in monoamine metabolism and function and survive into adulthood. Specifically, these animals express very low levels of VMAT2, an endogenous protein which sequesters monoamines(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a(More)
1. Capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone are natural pungent-tasting compounds found in chili pepper, black pepper, and ginger, respectively. These structurally related compounds evoke many of the same physiological responses, but at comparable concentrations capsaicin produces complete tachyphylaxis, piperine produces partial tachyphylaxis, and zingerone can(More)
Cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease has been attributed to stress-induced increases in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is overexpressed in Alzheimer's disease, and stress-related changes in long-term potentiation, an ACh-related cerebral function, are triggered by interleukin-1. Microglial cultures (N9) synthesized and(More)
1. Whole cell patch-clamp records from cultured rat trigeminal ganglion cells having soma diameters ranging from 20 to 50 microM revealed that capsaicin activated two inward currents and an outward current. At -60 mV, the inward currents could be distinguished by their different peak times, which were 4.2 +/- 3.1 and 41.4 +/- 16.4 (SD) s. 2. Cells with the(More)
Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot pepper, activates nociceptors to produce pain and inflammation. However, repeated exposures of capsaicin will cause desensitization to nociceptive stimuli. In cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, we investigated mechanisms underlying capsaicin-mediated inhibition of action potentials (APs) and modulation of(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) genes encode a family of related ion-channel subunits. This family consists of cation-selective, calcium-permeable channels that include a group of vanilloid receptor channels (TRPV) implicated in pain and inflammation. These channels are activated by diverse stimuli, including capsaicin, lipids, membrane deformation,(More)