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We have shown that Rop1At, a pollen-specific Rop GTPase that is a member of the Rho family of small GTP binding proteins, acts as a key molecular switch controlling tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Pollen-specific expression of constitutively active rop1at mutants induced isotropic growth of pollen tubes. Overexpression of wild-type Arabidopsis(More)
During the assembly of gap junctions, a hemichannel in the plasma membrane of one cell is thought to align and dock with another in an apposed membrane to form a cell-to-cell channel. We report here on the existence and properties of nonjunctional, plasma membrane connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels. The opening of the hemichannels was demonstrated by the(More)
The modular protein titin, which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle, is subjected to stretching forces. Previous work on the experimental elongation of single titin molecules has suggested that force causes consecutive unfolding of each domain in an all-or-none fashion. To avoid problems associated with the heterogeneity of the modular,(More)
Elaborate mechanisms have evolved for the translocation of nucleus-encoded proteins across the plastid envelope membrane. Although putative components of the import apparatus have been identified biochemically, their role in import remains to be proven in vivo. An Arabidopsis mutant lacking a new component of the import machinery [translocon at the outer(More)
To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of pathological pain, it is important and necessary to develop an animal model characterized by both spontaneous tonic pain and hyperalgesia with a prolonged duration post-tissue injury. In this report, we investigated whether the two animal models of spontaneous tonic pain (the formalin test and the bee venom test)(More)
The survival motor neuron gene is present in humans in a telomeric copy, SMN1, and several centromeric copies, SMN2. Homozygous mutation of SMN1 is associated with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a severe motor neuron disease characterized by early childhood onset of progressive muscle weakness. To understand the functional role of SMN1 in SMA, we(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Transient forebrain ischemia results in a 24- to 72-hour delayed loss of CA1 neurons. Previous work has not assessed whether insult durations can vary the degree and maturation rate of CA1 injury and whether there are different ultrastructural features of death after brief or severe ischemia. We also tested whether known(More)
Schwann cells (SCs) have been shown to be a key element in promoting axonal regeneration after being grafted into the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, SC-supported axonal regrowth was tested in an adult rat spinal cord implantation model. This model is characterized by a right spinal cord hemisection at the eighth thoracic segment,(More)
The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the electromagnetic calorimeter, the current baseline choice is a high granularity sampling calorimeter with tungsten as absorber and silicon detectors as sensitive material. A " physics(More)
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Abstract—Magnetic resonance (MR) cystography or MR-based virtual cystoscopy is a promising new technology to evaluate the entire bladder in a fully non-invasive manner. It requires the anatomical(More)