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This paper presents a comparative study between two iterative algorithms for computing the generalized centroid of an interval type-2 fuzzy set. The first procedure is the so called enhanced Karnik-Mendel (EKM) algorithm. The latter, introduced here as a recursive algorithm with uniique loop (RAUL), is a modification of a previously reported procedure. The(More)
PURPOSE This article addresses a series of questions that are critical to planning and implementing effective intervention programs for young linguistically diverse learners with primary language impairment (LI). Linguistically diverse learners in the United States include children whose families speak languages such as Spanish, Korean, Cantonese, Hmong,(More)
The number of individuals from various culture and language backgrounds who are receiving behavior-analytic services is growing. Therefore, a behavioral understanding of the role of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) in language acquisition may be warranted. We searched recent editions of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and the Journal of Applied(More)
Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what bilingual or home language interventions have been found to be effective for 2- to 6-year-old dual language learners who have language impairment (LI) or are at risk for LI. Method We conducted ancestral searches and searches of electronic databases, hand-searched article bibliographies,(More)
The development of early literacy skills for Spanish English bilinguals (SEB) is an important foundation for designing and interpreting assessments and related results with SEB populations. More specifically, understanding the way in which early literacy skills develop in Spanish is crucial when evaluating performance and progress in U.S. SEB preschool-age(More)
BACKGROUND Children with language impairment (LI) often have lags in development of print knowledge, an important early-literacy skill. This study explores impacts of a print-focused intervention for Spanish-speaking children with LI in Southeastern Mexico. AIMS Aims were twofold. First, we sought to describe the print knowledge (print-concept knowledge,(More)
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