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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gram-negative bacteria contain ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 receptors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates TLR4, while peptidoglycan products activate NOD1. Activation of NOD1 by the specific agonist FK565 results in a profound vascular dysfunction and experimental shock in vivo.(More)
Pharmacologists have used pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for decades as a stimulus for studying mediators involved in inflammation and for the screening of anti-inflammatory compounds. However, in the view of immunologists, LPS was too non-specific for studying the mechanisms of immune signalling in(More)
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