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Copper resistance has emerged as an important virulence determinant of microbial pathogens. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, copper resistance is mediated by the copper-responsive repressor CopY, CupA and the copper-effluxing P(1B)-type ATPase CopA. We show here that CupA is a previously uncharacterized cell membrane-anchored Cu(I) chaperone and that a Cu(I)(More)
Quantum dots are typically formed from large groupings of atoms and thus may be expected to have appreciable many-body behavior under intense optical excitation. Nonetheless, they are known to exhibit discrete energy levels due to quantum confinement effects. We show that, like single-atom or single-molecule two- and three-level quantum systems, single(More)
We report coherent optical control of a biexciton (two electron-hole pairs), confined in a single quantum dot, that shows coherent oscillations similar to the excited-state Rabi flopping in an isolated atom. The pulse control of the biexciton dynamics, combined with previously demonstrated control of the single-exciton Rabi rotation, serves as the physical(More)
Research in semiconductor spintronics aims to extend the scope of conventional electronics by using the spin degree of freedom of an electron in addition to its charge. Significant scientific advances in this area have been reported, such as the development of diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors, spin injection into semiconductors from ferromagnetic metals(More)
Coherent population trapping (CPT) refers to the steady-state trapping of population in a coherent superposition of two ground states that are coupled by coherent optical fields to an intermediate state in a three-level atomic system 1. Recently, CPT has been observed in an ensemble of donor-bound spins in GaAs (ref. 2) and in single nitrogen-vacancy(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. Inhibition of its biogenesis is a proven strategy for killing bacteria with antibiotics. The assembly of PG requires disaccharide-pentapeptide building blocks attached to a polyisoprene lipid carrier called lipid II. Although the stages of lipid II synthesis are known,(More)
Quantum computation requires a continuous supply of rapidly initialized qubits for quantum error correction. Here, we demonstrate fast spin state initialization with near unity efficiency in a singly charged quantum dot by optically cooling an electron spin. The electron spin is successfully cooled from 5 to 0.06 K at a magnetic field of 0.88 T applied in(More)
We report on the coherent optical excitation of electron spin polarization in the ground state of charged GaAs quantum dots via an intermediate charged exciton (trion) state. Coherent optical fields are used for the creation and detection of the Raman spin coherence between the spin ground states of the charged quantum dot. The measured spin decoherence(More)
UNLABELLED The Sec translocase pathway is the major route for protein transport across and into the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Previous studies reported that the SecA translocase ATP-binding subunit and the cell surface HtrA protease/chaperone formed a single microdomain, termed "ExPortal," in some species of ellipsoidal (ovococcus) Gram-positive(More)
A single electron or hole spin trapped inside a semiconductor quantum dot forms the foundation for many proposed quantum logic devices. In group III-V materials, the resonance and coherence between two ground states of the single spin are inevitably affected by the lattice nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, while the dynamics of the single(More)