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BACKGROUND & AIMS The use of azathioprine (AZA) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is limited by toxicity, which occurs in up to 20% of treated patients. Mutations in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) genes have been associated with the occurrence of AZA-related toxicity. The aim of our study(More)
The proposed metabolic advantage of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) is the direct conversion into the pharmacologically active 6-thioguaninenucleotides (6-TGN). The authors assessed metabolic characteristics of 6-TG treatment in patients with Crohn's disease (N = 7) on therapy with 20 mg 6-TG. 6-thioguanine-monophosphate (6-TGMP), 6-thioguanine-diphosphate (6-TGDP),(More)
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT From case reports it has become clear that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause bleeding disorders. The causative mechanism is as yet unknown. Several publications have described the relationship between the serotonin transporter genotype and the prevalence of certain diseases such as depression,(More)
Proper prospective pharmacokinetic studies of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are lacking. As a result, conflicting recommendations have been made for metabolite monitoring in routine practice. The authors have evaluated 6-MP pharmacokinetics in IBD patients, including the genetic background for thiopurine(More)
In a 23-year-old female with colonic Crohn's disease 6-mercaptopurine 100 mg daily (1.7 mg/kg) was added to mesalamine and prednisolone therapy because of ongoing disease activity. One month later she had fever and a pancytopenia. 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotides levels were extremely elevated (57,000 pmol/8x10(8) red blood cells) and 6-thioguanine(More)
Thiopurines are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, in clinical practice azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are not effective in one-third of patients and up to one-fifth of patients discontinue thiopurine therapy due to adverse reactions. The observed interindividual differences in therapeutic response and(More)
Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. AZA is normally rapidly and almost completely converted to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in the liver, which is further metabolized into a variety of pharmacologic active thiopurine metabolites. 6-MP is catabolized by xanthine oxidase (XO) to the inactive metabolite 6-thiouric(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro studies suggest interactions between mesalazine (mesalamine) and thiopurines by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) inhibition, influencing the balance of hepatotoxic 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotide and immunosuppressive tioguanine (thioguanine) metabolites. AIM To examine the in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction between(More)
BACKGROUND In the past 10-20 years, knowledge of both thiopurine pharmacology and -pharmacogenetics has been extended dramatically and used to develop new strategies to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity. AIM To review thiopurine efficacy, toxicity, pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, interactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Special(More)
There is a growing interest in the use of thiopurines (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine) for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. The genetically controlled thiopurine (S)-methyltransferase enzyme is involved in the metabolism of these agents and is hypothesised to determine the clinical response to thiopurines. Diminished activity(More)