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The gut barrier, composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, prevents the entrance of harmful microorganisms, antigens and toxins from the gut lumen into the blood. Small intestinal homeostasis is normally maintained by the rate of shedding of senescent enterocytes from the villus tip exactly matching(More)
Bifidobacteria comprise a significant proportion of the human gut microbiota. Several bifidobacterial strains are currently used as therapeutic interventions, claiming various health benefits by acting as probiotics. However, the precise mechanisms by which they maintain habitation within their host and consequently provide these benefits are not fully(More)
Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) is commonly used to induce intestinal inflammation in rodents. Despite its continuing importance as a model system for examining IBD pathogenesis, the mucosal and systemic immune responses have not been comprehensively documented. The purpose of this study was to dissect functional and phenotypic changes in both immune(More)
Regulatory T cells (T-regs) can negatively impact tumor antigen-specific immune responses after infiltration into tumor tissue. However, depletion of T-regs can facilitate enhanced anti-tumor responses, thus augmenting the potential for immunotherapies. Here we focus on treating a highly aggressive form of cancer using a murine melanoma model with a poor(More)
NK cells were found to be recruited in a temporally controlled manner to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and the cervical lymph nodes of mice after intranasal immunization with Ag85B-early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa from Mycobacterium tuberculosis mixed with Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin as adjuvant. These NK cells were activated and secreted(More)
Bifidobacteria constitute a substantial proportion of the human gut microbiota. There are currently many bifidobacterial strains with claimed probiotic attributes. The mechanism through which these strains reside within their host and exert benefits to the host is far from fully understood. We have shown in the case of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 that a(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are traditionally considered in the context of tumor surveillance and viral defense, but their role in bacterial infections, particularly those caused by enteric pathogens, is less clear. C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with Citrobacter rodentium, a murine pathogen related to human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. We used(More)
The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+)), harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-7, which encodes the Vi locus.(More)
Environmental shedding of genetically manipulated microorganisms is an issue impeding the development of new live vaccines. We have investigated the immunogenicity of a number of novel Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium oral vaccine candidates that express the fragment C (TetC) component of tetanus toxin and harbor combinations of additional mutations(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are traditionally considered in the context of tumor surveillance and infection defense but their role in chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease is less clear. Here, we investigated the role of NK cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Depletion of NK cells impairs the survival of(More)