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We present a computational model of the mechanics of growth of the trophoblast bilayer in a chorionic villous, the basic structure of the placenta. The placental trophoblast is modeled as a collection of elastic neutrally buoyant membranes (mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast) filled with a viscous, incompressible fluid(More)
We have developed a fluid-mechanical model of a eucaryotic axoneme that couples the internal force generation of dynein molecular motors, the passive elastic mechanics of microtubules, and forces due to nexin links with a surrounding incompressible fluid. This model has been used to examine both ciliary beating and flagellar motility. In this article, we(More)
Traditional continuum models of ameboid deformation and locomotion are limited by the computational difficulties intrinsic in free boundary conditions. A new model using the immersed boundary method overcomes these difficulties by representing the cell as a force field immersed in fluid domain. The forces can be derived from a direct mechanical(More)
Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction,(More)
SYNOPSIS. We present a mathematical model and numerical method designed to study the fluid dynamics of swimming organisms. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a domain of fluid within which an organism undergoing time-dependent motions is immersed. Of interest are both the dynamics of a single organism and the relationship of its morphology to(More)
Mammalian sperm must hyperactivate in order to fertilize oocytes. Hyperactivation is characterized by highly asymmetrical flagellar bending. It serves to move sperm out of the oviductal reservoir and to penetrate viscoelastic fluids, such as the cumulus matrix. It is absolutely required for sperm penetration of the oocyte zona pellucida. In order for sperm(More)
The coordinated beating of motile cilia is responsible for ovum transport in the oviduct, transport of mucus in the respiratory tract, and is the basis of motility in many single-celled organisms. The beating of a single motile cilium is achieved by the ATP-driven activation cycles of thousands of dynein molecular motors that cause neighboring microtubule(More)
Motivated by the desire to understand the fluid flow within the airway surface liquid of the lung, we consider the flow generated by a computational model of a motile, internally actuated cilium. The cilium, along with a mucus layer modeled by linear elastic elements, is coupled to a viscous, incompressible fluid. The evolution of this coupled system is(More)
The goal of this paper is to examine the evaluation of interfacial stresses using a standard, finite difference based, immersed boundary method (IMBM). This calculation is not trivial for two fundamental reasons. First, the immersed boundary is represented by a localized boundary force which is distributed to the underlying fluid grid by a discretized delta(More)
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