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The rapid expansion of human activities threatens ocean-wide biodiversity. Numerous marine animal populations have declined, yet it remains unclear whether these trends are symptomatic of a chronic accumulation of global marine extinction risk. We present the first systematic analysis of threat for a globally distributed lineage of 1,041 chondrichthyan(More)
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
Imprinting disorders are associated with mutations and epimutations affecting imprinted genes, that is those whose expression is restricted by parent of origin. Their diagnosis is challenging for two reasons: firstly, their clinical features, particularly prenatal and postnatal growth disturbance, are heterogeneous and partially overlapping; secondly, their(More)
BACKGROUND Many of the clinical and neuroendocrine features of bipolar disorder involve hypothalamic structures. Although current neuroimaging techniques inadequately resolve the structural components of the hypothalamus, evidence of derangement can be sought by examining the adjacent third ventricle and the functionally related pituitary. AIMS To(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS 6q24 transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a rare form of diabetes presenting in the neonatal period that remits during infancy but, in a proportion of cases, recurs in later life. We aim to describe the clinical presentation of 6q24 TNDM in the largest worldwide cohort of patients with defined molecular aetiology, in particular(More)
On 1st April 2010, the British Government announced designation of the British Indian Ocean Territory--or Chagos Archipelago--as the world's largest marine protected area (MPA). This near pristine ocean ecosystem now represents 16% of the worlds fully protected coral reef, 60% of the world's no-take protected areas and an uncontaminated reference site for(More)
The amount of leaves in a plant canopy (measured as leaf area index, LAI) modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO 2), and other trace gases, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. The latest generation of Earth system 5 models(More)
A NISO Recommended Practice is a recommended " best practice " or " guideline " for methods, materials, or practices in order to give guidance to the user. Such documents usually represent a leading edge, exceptional model, or proven industry practice. All elements of Recommended Practices are discretionary and may be used as stated or modified by the user(More)