Learn More
Naive T helper cells differentiate into two subsets, Th1 and Th2, each with distinct functions and cytokine profiles. Here, we report the isolation of T-bet, a Th1-specific T box transcription factor that controls the expression of the hallmark Th1 cytokine, IFNgamma. T-bet expression correlates with IFNgamma expression in Th1 and NK cells. Ectopic(More)
The mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) protects the cell against the stress of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have investigated here the contribution of the UPR transcription factors XBP-1, ATF6alpha, and ATF6beta to UPR target gene expression. Gene profiling of cell lines lacking these factors yielded several(More)
Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using cell culture and mouse models, we show that obesity causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This stress in turn leads to suppression of insulin receptor signaling through hyperactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequent(More)
Considerable progress has been made in identifying the transcription factors involved in the early specification of the B-lymphocyte lineage. However, little is known about factors that control the transition of mature activated B cells to antibody-secreting plasma cells. Here we report that the transcription factor XBP-1 is required for the generation of(More)
Natural killer (NK) and CD1d-restricted Valpha14i natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical early role in host defense. Here we show that mice with a targeted deletion of T-bet, a T-box transcription factor required for Th1 cell differentiation, have a profound, stem cell-intrinsic defect in their ability to generate mature NK and Valpha14i NKT cells.(More)
T-bet is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors that appears to regulate lineage commitment in CD4 T helper (TH) lymphocytes in part by activating the hallmark TH1 cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). IFN-gamma is also produced by natural killer (NK) cells and most prominently by CD8 cytotoxic T cells, and is vital for the control of(More)
The T helper lymphocyte is responsible for orchestrating the appropriate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The recognition of the polarized T helper cell subsets Th1 and Th2 has led to an understanding of the role of these cells in coordinating a variety of immune responses, both in responses to pathogens and in autoimmune and allergic(More)
The transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is essential for the differentiation of plasma cells and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we show that UPR-induced splicing of XBP-1 by the transmembrane endonuclease IRE1 is required to restore production of immunoglobulin in XBP-1-/- mouse B cells, providing an integral link between XBP-1,(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been attributed to aberrant mucosal immunity to the intestinal microbiota. The transcription factor XBP1, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is required for development and maintenance of secretory cells and linked to JNK activation. We hypothesized that a stressful environmental milieu in(More)
Sensors of pathogens, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), detect microbes to activate transcriptional programs that orchestrate adaptive responses to specific insults. Here we report that TLR4 and TLR2 specifically activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor kinase IRE1alpha and its downstream target, the transcription factor XBP1. Previously(More)