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We have identified a 95 kd cell surface protein, DM-GRASP, that is expressed on a restricted population of axons. Its expression begins early in chick embryogenesis, and within the spinal cord it is localized to axons in the dorsal funiculus, midline floorplate cells, and motoneurons. Antibodies to DM-GRASP impair neurite extension on axons, and purified(More)
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acylhomoserine lactone signals regulate the expression of several hundreds of genes, via the transcriptional regulator LasR and, in part, also via the subordinate regulator RhlR. This regulatory network termed quorum sensing contributes to the virulence of P. aeruginosa as a pathogen. The fact that two supposed PAO1 wild-type(More)
The genome of Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, a Parachlamydia-related endosymbiont of free-living amoebae, was recently published, providing the opportunity to search for genomic islands (GIs). On the residual cumulative G+C content curve, a G+C-rich 19-kb region was observed. This sequence is part of a 100-kb chromosome region, containing 100 highly(More)
Selective pressures related to gene function and chromosomal architecture are acting on genome sequences and can be revealed, for instance, by appropriate genometric methods. Cumulative nucleotide skew analyses, i.e., GC, TA, and ORF orientation skews, predict the location of the origin of DNA replication for 88 out of 100 completely sequenced bacterial(More)
The increasing number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes allows comparing their architecture and genetic makeup. Such new information highlights the crucial role of lateral genetic exchanges in bacterial evolution and speciation. Here we analyzed the twelve sequenced genomes of Streptococcus pyogenes by a naïve approach that examines the preferential(More)
MOTIVATION Lateral gene transfer is a major mechanism contributing to bacterial genome dynamics and pathovar emergence via pathogenicity island (PAI) spreading. However, since few of these genomic exchanges are experimentally reproducible, it is difficult to establish evolutionary scenarios for the successive PAI transmissions between bacterial genera.(More)
Analysis of the first reported complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, an actinobacterium colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, uncovered its proteomic relatedness to Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, a rapid scrutiny by genometric methods revealed a genome organization totally different from all so far(More)
The name hydrazinopeptide designates peptidic structures in which one of the native CONH links is replaced by a CONHNH (hydrazido) fragment. In this paper, we report the synthesis of such hydrazinohexapeptides (3-5) analogous to Z-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-Ala-Ala-NHiPr (6), a substrate of human leukocyte elastase (HLE; EC 3.4.21.37), cleaved by this serine protease(More)
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are major factors contributing to the pathogenicity of bacteria and to their resistance to antibiotics. In general, genomic islands (GIs), of which PAIs are a subset, increase the fitness of their hosts by providing new functions. With the number of available whole genome sequences growing exponentially, in silico methods have(More)
Nucleotide composition analyses of bacterial genomes such as cumulative GC skew highlight the atypical, strongly asymmetric architecture of the recently published chromosome of Idiomarina loihiensis L2TR, suggesting that an inversion of a 600-kb chromosomal segment occurred. The presence of 3.4-kb inverted repeated sequences at the borders of the putative(More)