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The presynaptic N type Ca channel (CaV2.2) is associated with the transmitter release site apparatus and plays a critical role in the gating of transmitter release. It has been suggested that a distinct CaV2.2 long C terminal splice variant is targeted to the nerve terminal and is anchored at the release face by calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein(More)
Reliable cell nuclei segmentation is an important yet unresolved problem in biological imaging studies. This paper presents a novel computerized method for robust cell nuclei segmentation based on gradient flow tracking. This method is composed of three key steps: (1) generate a diffused gradient vector flow field; (2) perform a gradient flow tracking(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. The mechanisms underlying VSMC foam cell formation are relatively little known. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and autophagy have a potential role in regulating foam cell formation. Our study demonstrated that autophagy(More)
We have previously shown that beta-amyloid (Abeta) induces astrocyte activation in vitro and that this reaction is attenuated by the addition of exogenous apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing particles. However, the effects of Abeta on endogenous apoE and apoJ levels and the potential role of apoE receptors in astrocyte activation have not been addressed.(More)
Large numbers of activated glia are a common pathological feature of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several different stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), dibutyryl (db)cAMP, and aged amyloid-beta 1-42 (A beta), can induce glial activation in vitro, as measured by morphological changes and the production of(More)
Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is associated with accelerated neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain. In this study, postnatal day (PND) 7 rats were treated with 20 mg/kg ketamine or saline in six successive doses (s.c.) at 2-h intervals. Brain frontal cortical areas were collected 6 h after the last(More)
The mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinative zone of the adult brain. Progenitor cells generated from the SVZ play important roles during the remyelination process. To determine the functional role of Olig2 in regulating astroglial differentiation in the mouse SVZ, we used the cuprizone mouse model to investigate demyelination. We(More)
The astrocytic protein S100B stimulates neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival during CNS development. S100B can also stimulate glial activation, leading to induction of pro-inflammatory molecules like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Although it is known that S100B's neurotrophic activity requires a(More)
Repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, during development, may result in neuronal damage that leads to behavioral deficits in adulthood. The present study examined the potential neurotoxic effects of PCP exposure (10mg/kg) in rats on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 9 and 11 and the possible underlying(More)
The glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) is a scaffolding protein in postsynaptic density (PSD), tethering AMPA receptors to other signaling proteins. Here we report that glutamate stimulation caused a rapid reduction in protein levels of GRIP1, but not that of glutamate receptor (GluR) 1, GluR2 and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) in(More)